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Renata Koyama, Adriane Marinho de Assis, Lilian Yukari Yamamoto, Wellington Fernando Borges, Rogério de Sá Borges, Sandra Helena Prudêncio and Sergio Ruffo Roberto

American grapes are widely cultivated in some areas of the world such as Brazil and the United States, mainly for grape juice production as well as for the fresh market. ‘Isabel’, syn. ‘Isabella’, grape ( Vitis labrusca L.) is one of the most

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Veronica T. Lewandowski

Routine methods were developed to propagate through tissue culture large numbers of Vitis labrusca L. `Delaware' cuttings on a 10-week production cycle. A 35- fold increase in shoots was achieved in 4 weeks through axillary bud proliferation of rejuvenated cultures using a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Additive root-stimulating effects from the auxin combination of NAA at 0.001 mg·1iter–1 and IBA at 0.005 mg·liter–1 in half-strength MS resulted in > 95% rooting of microcuttings in 10 days. More than 95% of the rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized within 14 days using greenhouse flats fitted with humidity domes and containing a fortified soilless growing medium. Leaves from 21-day-old greenhouse plantlets lost 21% water after 40 min of holding at 40% relative humidity, compared to 62% from 9-day-old plantlets and 91% from 3-day-old plantlets. The combined features reported here enable clonal production of ≈ 3000 `Delaware' grape plants per month using simplified methods and reduced intervals between sequential stages of development. Chemical names used: α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Brandon Smith* and Lailiang Cheng

One-year-old `Concord' grapevines (Vitis labrusca L.) were fertigated twice weekly for 11 weeks with a complete nutrient solution containing 1, 10, 20, 50 or 100 μmol iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA). Leaf total Fe content did not increase in response to Fe supply, however both “active” Fe (extracted with 2, 2'-dipyridyl) and chlorophyll (Chl) content increased as applied Fe increased. At the lowest active Fe level, leaf absorptance and maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm) were slightly decreased, and non-photochemical quenching was significantly greater. PSII quantum efficiency decreased curvilinearly as active Fe content decreased. On a Chl basis, the xanthophyll cycle pool size, lutein, and beta-carotene increased curvilinearly as active Fe decreased, and neoxanthin increased at the lowest Fe level. Activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase followed a similar trend and increased under Fe deficiency, when expressed on a Chl basis. Antioxidant metabolites also increased in response to Fe limitation. On a Chl basis, ascorbate (AsA), dehydroascorbate (DAsA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content was greater at the lowest active Fe levels. We did not find a difference in the ratio of AsA to DAsA or GSH to GSSG. In conclusion, both photoprotective mechanisms, xanthophyll cyle-dependent thermal dissipation and the ascorbate-glutatione antioxidant system, are enhanced in response to iron deficiency to cope with excess absorbed light.

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Li-Song Chen and Lailiang Cheng

One-year-old grapevines (Vitis labrusca L. `Concord') were supplied twice weekly for 5 weeks with 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 mm nitrogen (N) in a modified Hoagland's solution to generate a wide range of leaf N status. Both light-saturated CO2 assimilation at ambient CO2 and at saturating CO2 increased curvilinearly as leaf N increased. Although stomatal conductance showed a similar response to leaf N as CO2 assimilation, calculated intercellular CO2 concentrations decreased. On a leaf area basis, activities of key enzymes in the Calvin cycle, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoribulokinase (PRK), and key enzymes in sucrose and starch synthesis, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), increased linearly with increasing leaf N content. When expressed on a leaf N basis, activities of the Calvin cycle enzymes increased with increasing leaf N, whereas activities of FBPase, SPS, and AGPase did not show significant change. As leaf N increased, concentrations of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), and 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA) increased curvilinearly. The ratio of G6P/F6P remained unchanged over the leaf N range except for a significant drop at the lowest leaf N. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at dusk increased linearly with increasing leaf N, and there was no difference between predawn and dusk measurements. As leaf N increased, starch concentration increased linearly at dusk, but decreased linearly at predawn. The calculated carbon export from starch degradation during the night increased with increasing leaf N. These results showed that 1) grapes leaves accumulated less soluble carbohydrates under N-limitation; 2) the elevated starch level in low N leaves at predawn was the result of the reduced carbon export from starch degradation during the night; and 3) the reduced capacity of CO2 assimilation in low N leaves was caused by the coordinated decreases in the activities of key enzymes involved in CO2 assimilation as a result of direct N limitation, not by the indirect feedback repression of CO2 assimilation via sugar accumulation.

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Eric J. Hanson and G. Stanley Howell

Mature `Concord' vines (Vitis labrusca L.) were excavated at 2- to 4-week intervals through the season to study seasonal changes in vine N concentration. Vine N content began increasing 2 weeks after budbreak, increased most rapidly from mid-May to mid-July, and declined between fruit maturation and the beginning of leaf senescence. Vine N content was lowest at budbreak (18 g) and maximum at fruit maturity (75 g). This change represented a net accumulation of 57 g N/vine or 77 kg N/ha. In a separate study, `Seyval blanc' vines were treated with double 15N-labeled ammonium nitrate at either budbreak or bloom. Labeled N was applied as a spray beneath vines to simulate a broadcast vineyard application. Vines were excavated when leaves began to senesce in October, partitioned into various components, and analyzed by mass spectrophotometry to determine fertilizer-derived N content. Vines had recovered statistically similar percentages of fertilizer N applied at budbreak (7.1%) and bloom (10.6%). The low recovery of fertilizer N likely resulted from the method of fertilizer application, the presence of a competitive grass sod between the rows, and relatively high native soil N levels.

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John R. Clark, Tony K. Wolf and M. Kay Warren

Thermal analysis was used to determine if muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) buds supercool and to determine the seasonal cold hardiness of several grape cultivars grown in Arkansas. Buds of the muscadine cultivars Carlos and Summit, sampled from vines grown at Clarksville, Ark., produced low-temperature exotherms consistent with the number of buds tested. Apparent hardiness of the buds increased from 5 Nov. 1993 through 7 Jan. 1994. Mean low-temperature exotherms (MLTE) were lowest on 7 Jan. and were –21.5C for `Carlos' and –23.4C for `Summit'. `Mars' buds, sampled at Clarksville, Ark., and Winchester, Va., were included in the study and increased in hardiness during the same period. MLTE for `Mars' from Arkansas were similar to those of the muscadine cultivars on 7 Jan.; however, `Mars' attained lower MLTE temperatures with vines grown in Virginia than with those in Arkansas. Location differences in hardiness of `Mars' are conjectural.

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Brandon R. Smith*, Li-Song Chen and Lailiang Cheng

Own-rooted one-year-old `Concord' grapevines were fertigated twice weekly for 11 weeks with 1, 10, 20, 50, OR 100 μmol iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid in a complete nutrient solution. As Fe supply increased, leaf total Fe content did not change, whereas active Fe (extracted by 2, 2'-dipyridyl) and total chlorophyll content increased curvilinearly. CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance increased curvilinearly with increasing active Fe, whereas intercellular CO2 concentrations decreased linearly. Activities of key Calvin cycle enzymes, Rubisco, NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoribulokinase, stromal fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), and a key enzyme in sucrose synthesis, cytosolic FBPase, all increased linearly with increasing active Fe. No difference was found in the activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and sucrose phosphate synthase of leaves between the lowest and the highest treatments, whereas slightly lower activities were observed in the middle Fe treatments. Content of 3-phosphoglycerate increased curvilinearly with increased active Fe, whereas glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate did not change. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch, and total non-structural carbohydrates at both dusk and pre-dawn increased with increasing active Fe. Carbon export from starch breakdown during the night, calculated as the difference between dusk and predawn levels, increased as active Fe increased. In conclusion, Fe limitation reduces the activities of Rubisco and other photosynthetic enzymes, and hence CO2 assimilation capacity. Fe-deficient grapevines have lower concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates in source leaves, and therefore, are source limited.

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Danny L. Barney

During freezing studies of `Concord' grape (Vitis labrusca L.), bud viability significantly affected callus formation, adventitious root initiation, and root dry weight during regrowth assays conducted to assess freezing injury. Applying exogenous 1- H -indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) partially offset bud loss and stimulated root initiation. Further tests demonstrated that buds were less cold hardy than internode woody tissues in dormant `Concord' canes. Because of cold-hardiness differences between buds and wood and because bud viability affects callus formation, root initiation, and root dry weight, regrowth assays do not seem to be sensitive indicators of freezing injury in grape woody tissues. Regrowth assays, however, seem to be reliable indicators of overall viability for frozen `Concord' grape cuttings.

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Thomas J. Zabadal and Thomas W. Dittmer

Varying amounts of vegetation-free area (VFA) were established around newly planted `Niagara' (Vitis labrusca L. × Vitis vinifera L.) grapevines to determine their influence on vine growth during the first growing season. VFAs were either circular with radii from 0 to 5 ft (0 to 152 cm) in one experiment or in bands from 0 to 8 ft (0 to 244 cm) in width in a second experiment. VFAs were maintained with biweekly manual weeding for the entire growing season. Leaf, shoot and root dry weights as well as the number of primary shoots and the length of the longest root were measured at the end of their first growing season. The thresholds for maximum vine dry weight biomass accumulation occurred with a circular VFA of 4 ft (122 cm). When banded VFAs were used, total vine dry weight biomass continued to increase up to the widest treatment of 8 ft (244 cm). Therefore, no threshold was attained. These are greater VFAs than typically established around vines in commercial plantings. Therefore, growers who desire to maximize vine growth of newly planted vines, should consider larger VFAs around vines than has been traditional unless such a practice is likely to cause surface soil erosion.

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Martin L. Kaps and Marilyn B. Odneal

Nine preemergent herbicides were applied at maximum label rate in Fall 1986, 1987, and 1988 to a `Catawba' grape (Vitis labrusca L.) vineyard in the Missouri Ozark region. The untreated controls showed 30% total weed cover by 28 Apr. 1987, 21 May 1988, and 18 Apr. 1989. In 1988, less rain fell early in the growing season; thus, weed cover in the untreated controls was delayed until late in the season. The herbicides norflurazon, oryzalin, and oxadiazon gave the longest period of acceptable grass control. Dichlobenil, diuron, oxyfluorfen, and simazine gave the longest period of acceptable broadleaf control. Most of the herbicides lost residual activity by early summer. For this reason, fall preemergent herbicide application cannot be relied on to give season-long control the following year in southern Missouri. Chemical names used: 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil); N' -(3,4-dichlorophenyl) - N,N -dimethylurea (diuron); N,N -diethyl-2-(1-napthalenyloxy)-propanamide (napropamide); 4-chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3(2H)-pyrdazinone (norflurazon); 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (oryzalin); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5 -(l,l-dimethylethyl) -l,3,4-oxadiazol-2- (3H)-one (oxadiazon); 2-chloro-l-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy) -4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene (oxyfluorfen); 3,5-dichloro-N-(l,l-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide (pronamide); and 6-chloro- N,N' -diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (simazine).