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S. Brooks Parrish and Zhanao Deng

axonopodis and Colletotrichum caladii, which affect Caladium × hortulanum . Further studies will be needed to determine if there is any resistance conferred to these triploids to either pathogen. Our findings are highly valuable to the future of

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Brent Harbaugh

Abstract

Visual symptoms of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and B deficiencies were induced in Caladium × hortulanum Birdsey ‘Candidum’. Characteristic symptoms were photographed and described and a key summarizing these symptoms follows:

a. Chlorosis or necrosis not expressed;

b. Petioles brittle and/or leaves orbicular.........................................................................................................................B

bb. Plants grow slowly, but have no other symptoms......................................................................................................P

bbb. Rust colored spots on underside of leaf near petiole, spots may become “windows” (only the cuticle and epidermal layer remain)................................................................................................................................................. Ca

aa. Chlorosis and/or necrosis expressed;

b. Chlorosis primary symptom.

c. Interveinal and veinal chlorosis

d. Chlorosis evident as leaves unfurl............................................................................................................... Mn

dd. Chlorosis not evident as leaves unfurl, older leaf blades and veins may turn bright yellow as they abscise................................................................................................................................................................... N

cc. Interveinal chlorosis...................................................................................................................................................Fe

bb. Both chlorosis and necrosis expressed.

c. Interveinal chlorosis developing into necrotic spots, leaves turn bright yellow (except basal veins remain green) as they abscise............................................................................................................................................. Mg

cc. Necrotic specks (@ 1 mm) near veins, general chlorosis............................................................................... Mn

bbb. Necrosis primary symptom.

c. Necrotic lesions (2–5 cm) on leaf apex and distal m argin.................................................................................K

cc. Marginal necrosis.

d. Necrosis spreads toward the center of the leaf, margins dry but the leaf blade around petiole remains intact.......................................................................................................................................................................K

dd. Interveinal rust colored, blotchy areas.........................................................................................................Ca

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Fahrettin Goktepe, Teresa Seijo, Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, Natalia A. Peres, and Robert J. McGovern

Caladiums ( Caladium × hortulanum Birdsey) are ornamental aroids valued for their bright, colorful leaves. They are widely used in landscapes, especially in the southern United States, and in production of pot plants worldwide ( Evans et al

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B. K. Harbaugh and G. J. Wilfret

Abstract

Stored ‘Candidum,’ ‘Carolyn Whorton,’ and ‘Frieda Hemple’ caladium tubers were soaked for 0, 4, 8, 16, 32, or 64 hours in 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/liter gibberellic acid (GA3) solutions to determine if flowering could be enhanced during the subsequent forcing period. Mean number of inflorescences produced per plant with no soaking was 0.2, 0.7, and 0.0 for ‘Frieda Hemple,’ ‘Candidum,’ and ‘Carolyn Whorton’ respectively, while tubers soaked in 250 mg/liter GA3 for 16 hours at 23°C averaged 2.4, 3.7, and 4.0 inflorescences per plant, respectively. There was no significant difference in number of inflorescences per plant from tubers treated with 250, 500, and 1000 mg/liter GA3. Optimum soaking time was 8 hours for ‘Frieda Hemple’ and ‘Carolyn Whorton,’ and 16 hours for ‘Candidum.’

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Zhanao Deng, Fahrettin Goktepe, and Brent K. Harbaugh

Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) stimulates flowering in Caladium hortulanum Birdsey HortScience 14 72 73 Hayward, W. 1950 Fancy-leaved caladiums Plant Life 6 131 142 Henny, R.J. 1982 Inheritance of

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Zhanao Deng, Fahrettin Goktepe, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Jinguo Hu

included as outgroups for the dendrogram. Table 1. List of 45 caladium commercial cultivars ( Caladium × hortulanum ) used in this study, their leaf characteristics (shape, main vein color, impact color, and presence of spots or blotches), stress

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Zhanao Deng and Brent K. Harbaugh

Cultivated caladiums ( Caladium × hortulanum Birdsey) are members of the aroid family and have been important pot and landscape plants ( Evans et al., 1992 ). They are known for their bright and colorful leaves, adaptation to tropical and

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Michelle A. Grabowski and Dean K. Malvick

caladium cultivars in controlled environments, suggesting that there may be varying levels of resistance to S. sclerotiorum within cultivars of caladium. The pedigrees of many cultivars of Caladium ×hortulanum are unknown, but most are believed to

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Zhe Cao, Shunzhao Sui, Qian Yang, and Zhanao Deng

Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) stimulates flowering in Caladium hortulanum Birdsey HortScience 14 72 73 Henny, R.J. 1982 Inheritance of foliar variegation in two Dieffenbachia cultivars J. Hered. 73 384 Henny, R.J. 1992 Inheritance of the foliar variegation

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Zhe Cao, Zhanao Deng, and Mike Mclaughlin

production and landscapes worldwide. In recent years, caladium breeding is active in several other countries, especially in Thailand. Considering the possible hybrid origin of many caladium cultivars, Birdsey (1951) proposed the species name Caladium