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Eulogio Pimienta-Barrios and Park S. Nobel

Flower and fruit production by the columnar cactus, Stenocereus queretaroensis (Weber) Buxbaum, occurred during the dry season in the late winter and spring, and the relatively small annual stem extension occurred primarily during the fall. Thus, reproductive growth does not directly compete with vegetative growth for resources such as reducing sugars, which increased during the wet summer season, a period when total sugars were decreasing. Stem extension, reproductive demography, fruit quality, seed size, and seed quality were not influenced by irrigation. Final fruit size and seed germination, however, were enhanced by applying water. The times from flower bud differentiation to flower opening and from anthesis to fruit ripening were relatively short and unaffected by irrigation.

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Candelario Mondragon-Jacobo, Natalia Doudareva, and Bruce P. Bordelon

A method for extraction of high quality DNA from four Opuntia sp. and other cacti using a hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method is described. These plants typically contain high levels of mucilages, complex polysaccharide compounds that bind water, thus preventing DNA extraction by common miniprep methods. The method involves adjusting the amount of tissue used according to species and age, followed by processing in an extraction buffer to separate coarse material. Extended centrifugation and digestion time in a separation buffer with CTAB (2%) was used. Exposing tissue to both buffers maintained polysaccharides in solution and allowed easier recovery of the aqueous phase that contains the DNA. We found that 5-8 g were needed to obtain up to 153 μg·g-1 of DNA from tender tissue. Old tissue yielded 26% less. Extraction of DNA from 5-g samples of tender tissue of the ornamental cacti Stenocereus sp., Cleistocactus sp., and Echinocereus sp. was successful. For these species, average yields ranged from 25 to 53 μg per sample. The DNA obtained was suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, producing clear, distinctive, and reproducible banding patterns useful for a variety of applications.

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Eugenio Pérez-Molphe-Balch, Martha Evelia Pérez-Reyes, Carlos Antonio Dávila-Figueroa, and Enrique Villalobos-Amador

In vitro propagation systems were developed for Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt & Rose, Pachycereus pringlei (Berger) Britt & Rose and Stenocereus thurberi (Engelm.) Buxb, three North American species of columnar cacti. In vitro germinated seedlings were used as a source of explants. Multiple shoot formation from areoles was achieved for three types of explants (apical, lateral, and transverse) cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media supplemented with 3% sucrose, 10 g·L-1 agar and various treatments with growth regulators. The highest shoot production efficiency for C. gigantea was obtained on transverse explants cultured on a medium with 2 mg·μmL-1 (8.87 μm) BA, where 5.3 shoots per explant were obtained. In P. pringlei and S. thurberi the best response was obtained using transverse explants on medium with 1 mg·L-1 (4.44 μm) BA (3.8 and 4.3 shoots per explant, respectively). Rooting of the in vitro generated shoots was achieved most efficiently on MS basal media with 3% sucrose, 10 g·L-1 agar and 1 mg·L-1 (4.9 μm) indole-3-butyric acid. Rooting frequencies were 92%, 88%, and 96% for C. gigantea, P. pringlei and S. thurberi, respectively, and the frequency of survival of the plants once transferred to soil was 86% on average. Chemical name used: benzyladenine (BA).

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Israel Weiss, Yosef Mizrahi, and Eran Raveh

-term responses of crassulacean acid metabolism plants to elevated CO 2 Plant Physiol. 82 604 606 Nobel, P.S. Pimienta-Barrios, E. 1995 Monthly stem elongation for Stenocereus queretaroensis : Relationships to