Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic calli of Citrus reticulata cv. Ponkan and Citropsis gabunensis, and fused in electric fields. The maximal fusion efficiency was obtained by application of AC at 75 V/cm (1.0 MHz) and DC square-wave pulse at 1.125 KV/cm for 40 usec. Fusion-treated protoplasts were cultured on MT medium without phytohormone, solidified with 0.6% agar. Colonies from the protoplasts were proliferated on MT medium with zeatin 1 mg/l and 0.9% agar. Selection of somatic hybrid callus was based on chromosome count and isoenzyme analysis. The somatic hybrids were tetraploid (2n=36). C. reticulata and C. gabunensis were both homozygous at Got-1 locus, but distinguishable easily because band of the latter migrated faster than that of the former. In zymogram of somatic hybrid, both parent bands were retained and a new hybrid band was also evident between them. Embryos from somatic-hybrid callus regenerated intact plant. The hybrid plants showed intermediate morphological characteristics of the parents.
Jinq-Tian Ling, N. Nito, and M. Iwamasa
S. Singh, B.K. Ray, S. Bhattacharyya, and P.C. Deka
Multiple shoots were obtained from shoot tips (2 to 3 mm) derived from mature plants (5 to 6 years old) of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Khasi mandarin and C. limon Burm.f. cv. Assam lemon when cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with (mg·liter-1) 1.0 BAP, 0.5 kinetin, and 0.5 NAA. Root induction was observed when 7-week-old single shoots (≈ 2 cm long) of both Citrus species were cultured on MS medium supplemented with (mg·liter-1) 0.25 BAP, 0.5 NAA, and 0.5 IBA. These plantlets were successfully established in the soil. Chemical names used: naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole 3-butyric acid (IBA), and benzylamino purine (BAP).
Mebelo Mataa and Shigeto Tominaga
The effects of root restriction, induced by root restriction bags, was evaluated on `Yoshida' Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Trees were planted in 0.02-m3 volume root wrap bags (RWBs), which were made from woven polystyrene fiber, or root control bags (RCBs) made from nonwoven UV-stabilized Duon polystyrene fibre with plastic bottoms. A direct soil planted, nonrestricted root treatment (DPC) was included as a control. After 3 years, reductions in height (14% to 29%), canopy volume (66% to 43%), girth (10% to 22%), and leaf area (8% to 12%) were recorded in both of the root restriction treatments. Greater reductions occurred in the RWB treatment. Photosynthesis, transpiration, water potential, and leaf carbohydrate content were not affected by root restriction although soil moisture content was lower in the root restricted treatments. Fruiting efficiency (i.e., number of fruit per unit volume of tree canopy) improved only in the RWB treatment over the control. Total soluble solids and the fruit color index were enhanced by root restriction.
Ockert P.J. Stander, Jade North, Jan M. Van Niekerk, Tertia Van Wyk, Claire Love, and Martin J. Gilbert
This study aimed to determine the effects of different types of nonpermanent netting (NPN) on foliar spray deposition, insect pest prevalence, and production and fruit quality of ‘Nadorcott’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata) trees in a commercial orchard at Citrusdal (lat. 32 32′31″S, long. 19 0′42″E), Western Cape, South Africa. The deposition quantity (FPC%) of foliar spray volumes of 3500, 7000, or 15,000 L·ha−1 was greater for leaves of control trees compared with leaves treated with NPN during summer (January) (8.8 vs. 6.1; P = 0.0055) and winter (June) (4.8 vs. 3.1; P = 0.0035). Deposition uniformity (CV%) was better for control leaves during summer (64.9 vs. 75.2; P = 0.0062) and winter (59.6 vs. 80.5; P = 0.0014), and deposition quality (ICD%) was better during winter (79.4 vs. 84.2; P = 0.0393). There were no differences in FPC%, CV%, and ICD% for fruit when foliar spray volumes of 3500 and 15,000 L·ha−1 were used for the control and NPN treatment groups during winter. However, with a foliar spray volume of 7500 L·ha−1, fruit from the control treatment group had greater FPC% (19.3 vs. 6.1; P = 0.0262), CV% (70.3 vs. 50.9; P = 0.0484), and ICD% (57.1 vs. 79.9; P = 0.0157). There were no differences in macronutrient concentrations between the leaves of trees subjected to control and NPN treatments, but leaf zinc (<81%; P = 0.0317) and iron (<78%; P = 0.0041) concentrations were lower with the NPN treatment. During short NPN treatments, fruit yield was reduced by ≈37% compared with that after control treatment, and longer NPN treatments had no effect on fruit yield. The reduction in fruit yield with NPN was not related to the effects of NPN on foliar spray deposition or to lower leaf micronutrient concentrations. The lower fruit yield during short NPN treatments was most likely caused by fruit drop that was exacerbated by the removal of the NPN. In the long NPN treatment group, fruit damage caused by sunburn was reduced by 17%, but the outer canopy fruit experienced increased wind damage or scarring. Except for the lower titratable acidity content with the shortest NPN treatment and the higher Brix°:TA ratio with two NPN treatments, NPN did not impact other fruit quality attributes. The use of NPN excluded male wild false codling moths (Thaumatotibia leucotreta) (FCM) males; however, it was still possible to capture a very small amount of mass-released sterile FCM and wild fruit flies under the NPN.
Kim D. Bowman
`Cipo' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] combines typical midseason fruit characteristics with a unique procumbent growth habit. This distinctive habit may be of value in breeding smaller and more procumbent scion cultivars if the growth habit is transmitted to hybrid seedlings. Two hybrid populations were created using `Clementine' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) as the female parent and either `Cipo' sweet orange or `Pineapple' (another midseason sweet orange with a more typical upright growth habit) as the male parent. The `Clementine' × `Cipo' cross yielded many hybrids with the procumbent habit, many with the upright habit, and some that appeared intermediate. Both hybrid populations were compared with nucellar seedling populations from `Cipo' and `Pineapple' using two morphological characteristics that differentiate between the procumbent habit of `Cipo' and the upright habit of `Pineapple'. All the `Clementine' × `Pineapple' hybrids were of upright growth habit, while the `Clementine' × `Cipo' progeny segregated into two groups based on growth habit (upright and procumbent). The two measured characteristics were tightly correlated in the segregating population and are probably pleiotropic effects of the same genetic mutation. The observed population distributions were as expected if the procumbent habit in `Cipo' is controlled by a single dominant allele in the heterozygous condition.
Andrew J. Krajewski and Etienne Rabe
To investigate the effects of bud age on sprouting and flowering, bearing Clementine mandarin trees were hand-pruned at monthly intervals from late spring to fall. This pruning resulted in regrowth bearing axillary buds ranging in age from 9 to 5 months. After winter rest and during the return bloom, sprouting and flowering were assessed on axils on terminally positioned stems of these ages. The proportion of axillary buds sprouting and the number of spring shoots produced by each sprouting axillary site decreased with decreasing bud age. The proportion of axils sprouting one or more inflorescences, and the average number of flowers per stem also decreased with decreasing bud age. The number of axillary sites per stem, also significantly affected sprouting and flowering. Our results demonstrate the potential of hand-pruning to manipulate sprouting and return bloom depending on when in the summer or autumn the trees are pruned.
Ute Albrecht and Kim D. Bowman
Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus in most citrus-producing countries worldwide. The disease, presumably caused by phloem-limited bacteria of the genus Candidatus Liberibacter, affects all known citrus species and citrus relatives with little known resistance. Typical disease symptoms are the production of abnormal-looking fruit and chlorosis or blotchy mottle of the leaves followed at advanced stages by tree decline and death. Trifoliate orange (P. trifoliata L. Raf.) and some of its hybrids reportedly lack distinct disease symptoms despite infection with the pathogen. US-897 is a hybrid of trifoliate orange and ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), the latter being highly susceptible to HLB. This study investigated whether field-grown, naturally infected trees and greenhouse-grown, graft-inoculated seedlings of this genotype display tolerance or resistance to HLB. It was shown that naturally infected US-897 trees exhibited no distinct disease symptoms commonly associated with HLB, except for the occurrence of few mottled leaves in a small percentage of trees. Analysis of fruit and seed from infected trees did not detect any growth reduction or otherwise negative impact on development. Graft-inoculated US-897 seedlings became polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for the pathogen but exhibited a superior performance compared with ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin seedlings, which displayed severe disease symptoms soon after inoculation. Despite infection, most US-897 seedlings did not develop leaf symptoms typical for HLB. Foliar symptoms observed in a small number of plants at later stages of the disease were faint and difficult to discern. Contrary to ‘Cleopatra’ seedlings, growth in stem diameter was only moderately reduced or unaffected in infected US-897 seedlings. The superior performance of US-897 plants in greenhouse and field locations suggest tolerance of this genotype to Ca. L. asiaticus.
Zhiyong Hu, Qing Liu, Meilian Tan, Hualin Yi, and Xiuxin Deng
from the cross between the diploid polyembryonic tangerine BDZ ( Citrus reticulata cv. Huanongbendizao) and the allotetraploid somatic hybrid HR [Hamlin sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis ) + rough lemon ( Citrus jambhiri )] ( Deng et al., 1996 ). Recently
Greg McCollum and Kim D. Bowman
grafted onto a rootstock. Historically, ‘Sour orange’ ( Citrus aurantium L.), believed to be a hybrid of Citrus maxima × Citrus reticulata Blanco ( Grosser et al., 2004 ), has been a favored rootstock for citrus in the Indian River district. However
Coral Ortiz, Antonio Torregrosa, Enrique Ortí, and Sebastià Balasch
trees grown on production systems trained to a narrow tree wall canopy. Some studies using manual gasoline-powered shakers and electric combs for thinning mandarins ( Citrus reticulata ) of the varieties Clemenrubí and Clemenules have been performed