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Jennifer R. DeEll, Clément Vigneault, Frédérique Favre, Timothy J. Rennie, and Shahrokh Khanizadeh

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of vacuum cooling and temperature on the quality and storage life of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). Sprouts in micro-perforated bags were either not precooled or vacuum cooled to 9, 6, or 3 °C, and stored for 7 days at 1, 3, or 6 °C. Vacuum-cooled bean sprouts lost more weight than sprouts not precooled, and the weight loss was greater when the sprouts were cooled to lower temperatures. However, the total loss never exceeded 5% and no apparent signs of shrivel were observed. Vacuum cooling resulted in greater product freshness after 4 days of storage, but the effect was nonsignificant after 7 days. Storage temperature had greater influence on bean sprout quality than did cooling temperature, with greater freshness and whiter hypocotyls at the lower temperatures. However, blackening of cotyledons increased as the storage temperature decreased.

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R.R. Tripepi and M.W. George

Seeds of `Berken' mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilcz.] were surface-sterilized with NaOCl and then either aerated 24 hours before sowing (routine procedure), planted immediately after the NaOCl treatment, or treated with hot cupric acetate and antibiotics before planting. Nine- or 10-day-old seedlings were used in rooting bioassays. Up to 10% of the seedlings and 17% of the cuttings had collapsed upper stems or wilted leaves. None of the seed treatments completely eliminated the pathogen, but the combination of hot cupric acetate plus antibiotics reduced the quantity of diseased cuttings to 3.3%. A white and two yellow-pigmented (Y1 and Y2) bacteria were isolated from diseased cuttings and used in subsequent pathogenicity tests. The Y2 strain was nonpathogenic. Stems of plants inoculated with the white strain turned brown and collapsed 2 days after inoculation, whereas leaves of plants inoculated with the Y1 strain wilted after 7 days. Electron microscopy, fatty acid analysis, and standard biochemical and physiological tests were used to identify the white strain as Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall and the Y1 strain as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens ssp. flaccumfaciens (Hedges) Collins and Jones. These results emphasize that seeds of mung bean should be checked for seedborne pathogens to avoid experimental artifacts.

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies J. Expt. Bot. 65 3311 3321 Nair, R.M. Yang, R. Easdown, W.J. Thavarajah, D. Thavarajah, P. Hughes, J. Keatinge, J.D.H. 2013 Biofortification of mungbean ( Vigna radiata ) as a

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Sara Arscott and Irwin Goldman

Methods Two experiments were performed in which seeds of three vegetable species, broccoli ( Brassica oleracea) , onion ( Allium cepa ), and mung bean ( Vigna radiata) , were germinated until they reached an “edible sprout” size. This size is dependent on

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Shu Hsien Hung, Chun Chi Wang, Sergei Veselinov Ivanov, Vera Alexieva, and Chih Wen Yu

growth conditions. Seeds of Vigna radiata cv. Tainan No. 5 (TN5), a chilling-sensitive cultivar, were purchased from the local (Pu-Tze Township) farmers' association. Seeds were germinated in pots containing a 1 perlite : 1 vermiculite : 1 peat (by

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

Even though mothbean (Vigna aconitifolia), a drought- and heat-tolerant crop, may have potential in the eastern United States, information about its production in this region is not available. To characterize potential seed yields and preliminary nutritional quality, 54 accessions were grown near Petersburg, VA, during 2011, 2012, and 2013. The seed yields varied from 48 to 413 lb/acre. The mean concentrations of protein, calcium, iron, and zinc in mature mothbean seed were 21.9%, 0.17%, 64.8 ppm, and 37.5 ppm, respectively. These values compared well with those in mungbean (Vigna radiata) and tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius). The results demonstrated that mothbean has considerable potential as an alternative, new food legume crop in Virginia and eastern United States.

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Robert R. Tripepi and Mary W. George

Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilcz.) cuttings are used in rooting bioassays, and nonexperimental variability must be rigorously controlled to obtain meaningful results. This study was conducted to document bacterial disease problems of mung bean and identify the causal organisms. `Berken' seeds were surfaced sterilized and aerated 24 hr before sowing. Nine-day-old seedlings were used in rooting bioassays. Up to 10% of the seedlings and 17% of the cuttings had collapsed stems or wilted leaves. A white and two yellow (Y1 and Y2) bacteria were isolated from diseased cuttings and used in subsequent pathogenicity tests. The Y2 isolate was nonpathogenic. Stems of healthy mung beans inoculated with the white isolate turned brown and collapsed 2 days after inoculation, whereas leaves of plants inoculated with the yellow isolate wilted after 7 days. Standard biochemical and physiological tests revealed that the white isolate was Pseudomonas syringue pv. syringae van Hall and the yellow isolate was Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. flaccumfaciens (Hedges) Collins and Jones. This research is the first report of a disease in mung bean caused by P.s. pv. syringae. These results demonstrate the need or disease-free seeds being used in bioassays since both pathogens were seed-borne.

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Shuhua Zhan, Zhongfang Lu, and Y. Huang

Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the economically important crops in Southeastern Asia and also grows in USA. Genetic transformation of mung bean has been achieved using an Agrobacterium -mediated transformation system. Two transformation methods were used in this study. With the leaf-disk transformation method, freshly cut leaf strips from young seedlings of mungbean were co-cultivated for 72 hours with either a wild-type A. rhizogenes strain 11325 or the strain containing an additional binary vector carrying the npt gene. In another method, agrobacteria were applied to wounded hypocotyls of aseptically germinated seedlings. After infection, the explants were placed on shoot induction medium. Within 3-4 weeks, shoots developed from the edges of leaf disks as well as from the inoculated sites on hypocotyls. Putatively transformed shoots were selected in vitro based on their ability to root in the kanamycin-containing medium. The npt gene fragment and a-few of T-DNA fragments from the wild-type Ri plasmid were detected in regenerated mungbean plants by Southern blot analysis. These results suggested that foreign DNAs from both the Ri plasmid and the binary vector had integrated into the genome of mung bean. These transformation systems for mung bean can now be used to introduce agronomically desirable traits into this crop for its genetic improvement.

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Mike Murray and Carrie Young

Field tests were conducted in commercial mung bean (Vigna radiata) fields in 1986, 1987, and 1989. The objective of these tests were to: determine optimum nitrogen fertilizer rates; evaluate preplant, postemergence or split applications of nitrogen; and develop data to utilize petiole sampling as an analytic technique to quantify plant nitrogen status.

Seed yields were significantly increased two of the three years by the addition of nitrogen fertilizers. Over three years, the addition of 40-120 pounds of nitrogen per acre resulted in an average seed yield increase of 14-37 percent, compared to an untreated control. Maximum yields were obtained with eighty pounds of nitrogen per acre. Within specific rates, there was a trend for preplant or split applications to result in the greatest yield increases.

Petiole nitrate levels did not appear to be a reliable indicator of plant nitrogen status, with wide differences between rates in different years. An average for the three-year test, six weeks after crop emergence, was 1270 ppm for the control and 2340 ppm for treatments receiving 80 pounds of nitrogen per acre.

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George C.J. Fernandez

The effectiveness of using moving mean covariance analysis (MMCA) rather than randomized complete-block design (RCBD) in experimental error control was compared in a large-scale mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] yield trial. The MMCA was superior to the RCBD, since it significantly reduced the experimental error and the coefficient of variation (cv). Inclusion of five neighboring plots in the moving mean computation provided better error control. However, the estimation of optimum number of neighboring plots to be used and moving mean calculations were tedious. The feasibility of using border-row measurements such as mean plant height at 50% flowering or mean seed yield/m of row as a covariate in an analysis of covariance (BRMCA) was examined in a separate mungbean yield trial in which border rows were planted with a check cultivar. Both border-row measurements were equally effective in reducing the experimental error. However, plant height measurements were simpler than measuring seed yield. Because border-row measurements could be readily used as covariate in analysis of covariance without a need for moving mean computation from the response variable, BRMCA could be advantageous for error control in row crops yield evaluation.