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Shiow Wang, Ren-tian Feng, Linda Bowman, Ross Penhallegon, and Min Ding

The effects of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) extracts on activator protein-1 (AP-1), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were evaluated. Pretreatment of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells with lingonberry extracts produced a dose-dependent inhibition of AP-1 and NF-κB induced by either 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet-B (UVB) light. Lingonberry extracts blocked UVB-induced phosphorylation of MAPK family members ERK1, ERK2, and p38, but not JNK. Lingonberry extracts also prevented TPA-induced phosphorylation of ERK1 and ERK2. Results of soft agar assays indicated that lingonberry extracts suppressed TPA-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+

cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lingonberry extracts also induced the apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells in a dose-independent manner. These results suggest that ERK1 and ERK2 may be inhibited by lingonberries, which results in suppression of AP-1 and neoplastic transformation in JB6 P+ cells and causes cancer cell death by an apoptotic mechanism in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

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Shiow Wang and Ross Penhallegon

Lingonberries have been shown to contain high antioxidant activity. Fruit from different cultivars of lingonberry (Vacciniumvitis-idaea L) were evaluated for fruit quality, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin and phenolic contents. The fruit soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acids (TA), antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin and phenolic contents varied with cultivars. The SSC ranged from 12.9% to 16.9%, the TA ranged from 0.31% to 0.41% and the ratios of SSC/TA ranged from 35.37 to 51.21. Lingonberries contain potent free radical scavenging activities for DPPH·, ROO·, ·OH and O .- 2 radicals. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values from acetone extraction of lingonberries ranged from 58.5–223.6 μmol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g fresh berries. The ED50 values for DPPH-radical scavenging ranged from 5.91–11.77 mg fresh weight. The DPPH-radical scavenging activity correlated with ORAC values with a R 2 of 0.8009. ESR spectrum showed that 50 mg·mL-1 of lingonberry extract decreased ·OH radicals by 83% and O .- 2 radicals by 99%. Cyanidin 3-galactoside was the most dominant anthocyanin and contributed the most antioxidant activity in lingonberries. The antioxidant properties of lingonberries may play an important role in protecting cells against the oxidative damage caused by free radicals.

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Samir C. Debnath

The growth and development of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) plants propagated either by conventional softwood cuttings or by in vitro shoot proliferation from nodal explants and by shoot regeneration from excised leaves of micropropagated shoots, were studied in cultivars `Regal', `Splendor', and `Erntedank'. Significant differences were observed between the treatments. After 3 years of growth, the in vitro-derived plants produced more stems, leaves, and rhizomes than the conventional cuttings which rarely produced rhizomes. In vitro culture on nutrient medium apparently induces the juvenile branching characteristics that favor rhizome production. This increase in vegetative growth and rhizome yield of in vitro-derived plants over stem cuttings varied among genotypes.

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Samir C. Debnath

In an attempt to improve the micropropagation protocol for lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) developed at the Centre, two lingonberry clones were compared for in vitro shoot proliferation on two different media supplemented with varying levels of thidiazuron (TDZ). TDZ supported proliferation at low concentrations (0.1 to 1 μm) but inhibited shoot elongation. However, usable shoots were obtained within 4 weeks by transferring shoot cluster to medium containing 1 μm zeatin. Genotypes differed significantly with respect to multiplication rate with `EL1' producing the most shoots per explant. In both genotypes, shoot proliferation was greatly influenced by explant orientation. Changing the orientation of explants from vertically upright to horizontal increased axillary shoot number, but decreased shoot height and leaf number per shoot. Proliferated shoots were rooted on a 2 peat: 1 perlite (v/v) medium, and the plantlets were acclimatized and eventually established in the greenhouse.

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Samir C. Debnath

The effects of TDZ (0, 0.1, 1, 5 and 10 μm) and explant orientation on adventitious shoot regeneration of `Erntedank' lingonberry were studied. Moderate concentration (1 to 5 μm) of TDZ supported bud and shoot regeneration, but strongly inhibited shoot elongation. TDZ initiated cultures were transferred to medium containing 1-2 μm zeatin and produced usable shoots after one additional subculture. Adventitious bud and shoot regeneration was greatly influenced by explant orientation. Elongated shoots were rooted on a 2 peat: 1 perlite (v/v) medium, and the plantlets were acclimatized and eventually established in the greenhouse with 80% to 90% survival rate.

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Björn A. Gustavsson and Vidmantas Stanys

Field performance in lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. cv. Sanna) was compared in 1995–97 for plants produced by tissue culture (TC) vs. stem cuttings (SC). Pot plants of about the same size were transplanted from the nursery to an infertile, sandy moraine soil. Survival was 97% for the TC plants but only 83% for the SC plants. Fruit yield was significantly greater for TC plants than for SC plants in both the second (+79%) and third (+190%) years, but mean fruit weight was not influenced by propagation method. Rhizome production and total plant weight were also greater for the TC plants. Although micropropagation may give rise to somaclonal variation, no obviously variant plants were apparent in the field.

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Samir Debnath*

The morphological development of lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) plants propagated either by conventional softwood cuttings or by in vitro shoot proliferation from nodal explants or by shoot regeneration from excised leaves of micropropagated shoots, was studied in cultivars `Regal', `Splendor', and `Erntedank'. Significant differences were observed between the treatments. In vitro-derived plants produced more shoots branches and rhizomes in contrast to conventional cuttings which rarely produced rhizomes. Plants propagated from cuttings had a lower number but vigorous shoots and thicker rhizomes than in vitro-derived plants. Source propagule had significant effect on multiplication rate. Another experiment evaluated the effect of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) application to softwood cuttings on subsequent rooting, shoot development, and rhizome production. Treating cuttings with IBA did not significantly improve rhizome formation and elongation. In vitro culture on nutrient medium apparently induces the juvenile branching characteristics that favored rhizome production. The advantage of rhizome production of in vitro-derived plants over stem cuttings varied among genotypes.

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Patricia S. Holloway and Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

Frozen lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea subsp. minus) and bog blueberries (V. uliginosum) were processed using recipes of the Alaska Cooperative Extension Service. Overall antioxidant activity (H-ORAC) was 71 μmol·g-1 of TE for frozen bog blueberries and for lingonberries, 160–165 μmol·g-1 of TE. Processing into fruit leather and drying increased levels in bog blueberries to 260–430 μmol·g-1 of TE and lingonberries to 457–939 μmol·g-1 of TE. Leathers and dried fruit had significantly higher levels of total anthocyanins (frozen bog blueberries: 2.1 μg·g-1, leather: 8.0 μg·g-1, dried: 9.8 μg·g-1; frozen lingonberries 1.4 μg·g-1, leather: 4 μg·g-1, dried: 5.2 μg·g-1); total phenolics (frozen bog blueberries: 4.8 μg·g-1, leather: 19 μg·g-1, dried: 26 μg·g-1; frozen lingonberries 7.7 μg·g-1, leather 24 μg·g-1, dried: 38 μg·g-1); and quercetin (frozen bog blueberries: 6.7 μg·g-1, leather: 86 μg·g-1, dried: 150 μg·g-1; frozen lingonberries 7.7 μg·g-1, leather 110 μg·g-1, dried: 430 μg·g-1). Bog blueberries did not have detectible levels of p-coumeric acid or benzoic acid, but lingonberries showed a significant increase in dried fruit and leather (frozen fruit p-coumeric: 0.18 μg·g-1g, leather: 0.45 μg·g-1, dried: 1.4 μg·g-1; frozen fruit benzoic: 0.41 μg·g-1, leather: 0.84 μg·g-1, dried: 0.71 μg·g-1). Frozen and processed lingonberries had little or no vitamin C. Bog blueberries had detectible levels in all treatments [highest in leather (440 μg·g-1), frozen berries (220 μg·g-1)]. ORAC, total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and quercetin were detected in all other processing methods (canned fruit, syrup, canned juice, jam, sauce, frozen j uice, and freezer jam). Levels were similar to or lower than frozen fruit.

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Carolyn F. Scagel

Using several different ericaceous ornamental species, we compared the growth, mineral nutrition, and composition of plants in response to growing media amended with varying proportions of sphagnum moss peat (peat) or coir dust (coir). Plants were grown for 16 weeks in media consisting of 80% composted Douglas fir bark with 20% peat, 20% coir, or 10% peat and 10% coir. Sixteen weeks after planting, decreases in extractable P were larger in peat-amended medium than the coir-amended medium, while decreases in extractable NH4-N and NO3-N were larger in the coir-amended medium. In general, leaf and stem dry weight, the number of leaves and stems, and total stem length increased with increasing proportion of coir in the medium while root dry weight either increased (Kalmia latifolia), decreased (Rhododendron, Gaultheria), or was not influenced by increasing the proportion of coir in the medium. The composition of the growing medium also influenced aspects of plant marketability and quality including: leaf greenness (SPAD), plant form (e.g., number of leaves per length of stem), and partitioning of biomass (e.g., root to shoot ratio). Nutrient uptake and fertilizer use was significantly different between the media types. Depending on the cultivar, we found that the coir-amended medium resulted in higher uptake or availability of several nutrients than peat-amended medium. Up take or availability of N, P, K, Ca, and S was enhanced for several cultivars, while uptake or availability of Mg, Fe, and B was similar between media types. Most cultivars/species growing in the coir-amended medium had higher production or accumulation of proteins and amino acids in stems than plants growing in peat-amended medium, while the production of proteins and amino acids in roots was lower in plants growing in coir-amended than in peat-amended medium. For the cultivars/species we tested, coir is a suitable media amendment for growing ericaceous plants and may have beneficial effects on plant quality.

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Samir C. Debnath and Danny L. Barney

organogenesis from hypocotyls segments of lingonberry ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 39 490 495 Debnath, S.C. 2005 A two-step procedure for adventitious shoot regeneration from in-vitro-derived lingonberry leaves: Shoot induction