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Doina Clapa, Claudiu Bunea, Orsolya Borsai, Adela Pintea, Monica Hârța, Răzvan Ştefan, and Alexandru Fira

Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Romania, for 5 months, from Jan. to May 2017. The plant material used consisted of the in vitro–propagated plants from three different highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars as follows

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Matthew Arrington and Lisa Wasko DeVetter

. Vicente, A. 2010 Effect of preharvest calcium applications on postharvest quality, softening and cell wall degradation of two blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum ) varieties Postharvest Biol. Technol. 58 98 103 Bednarska, E. 1991 Calcium uptake from the

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C.B. Ely, R.E. Frans, T.L. Lavy, R.E. Talbert, and J.D. Mattice

Two-year-old highbush blueberry bushes (Vaccinium corymbosum L. `Collins') were treated in Mar. 1985 with diuron or simazine at 2.2 or 4.5 kg a.i./ha. No residues were detected by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet absorbance detection (HPLC-UV) from treated berries that were harvested in June. Methiocarb was applied in May 1986 at 0.84 and 3 kg·ha-1 over the top of 3-year-old `Collins' when the berries began to ripen. Reverse-phase HPLC-UV of berries treated with methiocarb at 3 kg·ha-1 had combined residues of methiocarb and its sulfone and sulfoxide metabolites of 13.1 ppm from unrinsed and 7 ppm from rinsed berries harvested on the day of treatment; 4.9 ppm from unrinsed and 4 ppm from rinsed berries harvested 4 days after treatment; and 2.4 ppm from unrinsed and 2.5 ppm from rinsed berries harvested 8 days after treatment. Unrinsed berries treated with methiocarb at 0.84 kg·ha-1 had 5.7 ppm residue on the day of treatment and 1 ppm 8 days later. Residues from berries treated with methiocarb at 0.84 or 3 kg·ha-1 were below the legal tolerance level of 5 ppm after the required 7-day waiting period. Chemical names used: n'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N,N -dimethylurea (diuron); 6-chloro- N,N' -diethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (simazine); 3,5-dimethyl-4-(methylthio)phenol methylcarbamate (methiocarb).

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Gregory A. Lang and E. James Parrie

Pollen from six southern highbush blueberry cultivars derived from Vaccinium corymbosum L. and one or more other species (V. darrowi Camp, V. ashei Reade, and V. angustifolium Aiton) was incubated on nutrient agar to determine tetrad viability, pollen tube growth rates, and incidence of multiple pollen tube germinations. `Avonblue' pollen had a significantly lower tetrad germination percentage than `Georgiagem', `Flordablue', `Sharpblue', `Gulfcoast', or `O'Neal', all of which had >90% viable tetrads. The in vitro growth rate of `O'Neal' pollen tubes was significantly higher than the growth rates of `Sharpblue' and `Georgiagem pollen tubes. Of those tetrads that were viable, more than two pollen tubes germinated from 83% and 91% of the `Gulfcoast' and `Sharpblue' tetrads, respectively, while only 11% of the `Flordablue' tetrads produced more than two pollen tubes. The total number of pollen tubes germinated per 100 tetrads ranged from 157 (`Flordablue') to 324 (`Sharpblue'), resulting in actual pollen grain viabilities ranging from 39% to 81%. Genetic differences in pollen vigor, as indicated by pollen viability, pollen tube growth rates, and multiple pollen tube germinations, may influence blueberry growers' success in optimizing the beneficial effects of cross-pollination on fruit development.

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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt and Nicholi Vorsa

inheritance of this trait and an evaluation of its potential for development. Materials and Methods A parthenocarpic variant, G-176, was discovered in highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) (2n = 4x = 48) in a family of the pedigree G-105 × E-204

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Haishan An, Jiajia Meng, Fangjie Xu, Shuang Jiang, Xiaoqing Wang, Chunhui Shi, Boqiang Zhou, Jun Luo, and Xueying Zhang

Blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are becoming important commercial crops because of their healthy and flavorful properties, and they can be propagated by seeds, grafting, tissue culture, and hardwood/green cuttings ( Fischer et al., 2012

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Kenna E. MacKenzie

The effects of pollination treatments on fruit set and five berry characteristics [mass, diameter, number of apparently viable seeds (well-developed, plump with dark seed coat), total seed number (includes apparently viable and partially developed seeds), and harvest date] were examined on three highbush blueberry cultivars. Pollination treatments included unpollinated, open pollinated, emasculated, and three hand pollinations that used pollen from the same flower, from the same cultivar, or from a different cultivar. Berries matured earliest and were smallest with the most apparently viable seeds in `Northland', `Patriot' had the greatest fruit set and smallest seed number, and `Bluecrop' matured the latest. Fruit set was greater, berry size larger, seed number smaller, and maturation later in 1990 than 1991. For all three cultivars, berries were generally smallest, latest maturing, and had the fewest seeds when pollination was prevented and were largest with the most seeds and earliest maturing in open visitation. Emasculation resulted in berries similar to those from unpollinated flowers. For berry characteristics, cross-pollination was of benefit for `Patriot' and possibly `Northland' but not `Bluecrop'. Thus, commercial highbush blueberry planting designs must be based on the pollination requirements of the particular cultivar. `Northland' berries almost always had seeds, while `Patriot' showed high levels and `Bluecrop' low levels of parthenocarpy.

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Eric J. Hanson

Calcium sprays were applied to `Bluecrop' highbush blueberry bushes between petal fall and fruit harvest. In 1992, bushes received five sprays between 18 June and 16 July that totaled 0, 1.0, 1.9 or 3.8 kg Ca/ha. Calcium was applied as CaCl2 at spray concentrations of 0.08% to 0.2% Ca. Treatments in 1993 consisted of a control; 12.1 and 24.2 kg Ca/ha as CaCl2; and 12.1 kg Ca/ha as the commercial product Nutrical. Calcium was applied in seven sprays between 4 June and 16 July using spray concentrations of 0.1% to 0.4% Ca. Berry samples were hand-picked, stored for 3 to 20 days, and evaluated. Treatments had no effect on the percentage of soft or rotten berries, berry firmness, or berry Ca concentrations during either year. Calcium applications increased leaf Ca concentrations. Chemical names used: calcium trihydroxyglutarate (Nutrical).

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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt

Blueberry cultivars were treated with either soil drenches or foliar applications of paclobutrazol. Soil drenches of 25 mg·L-1 inhibited shoot elongation and stimulated earlier and greater flower bud production on `Bluetta', `Bluecrop', and `Jersey'. The treatments increased bud numbers 359% to 797%, and stimulated compound bud formation, while reducing formation of vegetative buds. This resulted in overcropping and reduced fruit size. Foliar applications at concentrations of 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg·L-1 increased bud set. Treatments did not significantly alter time to 50% flowering in `Bluecrop' or `Duke', but hastened flowering up to 5 days in `Blueray' at 200 ppm. Fruit ripening was significantly delayed at 100 and 200 ppm in `Bluecrop' due to overcropping, but no delays were observed in `Blueray' or `Duke'. Plant size and vigor appeared to be a determining factor in plant response. Chemical name used: PP333 or (2RS,3RS)-l(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(l,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).

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W. Alan Erb and Mark Pyeatt

This study was conducted in the greenhouse by running two experiments at different temperature regimes (22°C day and 13°C night and 33°C day and 22°C night). One-year-old tissue culture propagated plants were irrigated at three different soil moisture tension levels (5, 15, and 30 cnbars) and either exposed to moving or still air. The moving air treatment was created by two 51-cm-diameter fans running at either low (5.6 mph) or medium (8.2 mph) speed. Each experiment included, forty-eight plants arranged in a randomized complete block design. Each block consisted of a greenhouse bench containing two fans, a plastic dividing wall and two plant replications for each treatment. Canopy volume measurements were taken at the beginning, middle and end of each experiment to estimate growth rate. At the end of each experiment, total leaf area and leaf, stem and root dry weight data were collected. In the moderate temperature experiment, the still air treated plants had the highest canopy volume and leaf weight ratio while the moving air treated plants had the highest stem weight ratio. The only difference for the moisture treatments was the 5-cnbar treatment had the highest canopy volume. In the high temperature experiment, the still air treated plants had the highest canopy volume, total leaf area, leaf dry weight, shoot/root ratio, leaf weight ratio and leaf area duration while the moving air treated plants had the highest root weight ratio. The 5-cnbar treatment had the highest canopy volume and biomass accumulations. The 30-cnbar treatment had the highest root weight ratio.