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Paul M. Lyrene

Vaccinium arboreum (sparkleberry; section Batodendron ) is a widespread and abundant diploid blueberry species native in the southeastern United States ( Stockton, 1976 ; Vander Kloet, 1988 ). It flowers in April in north Florida and produces

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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt and James J. Polashock

Blueberries (family Ericaceae, species Vaccinium , commonly section Cyanococcus ) are a diverse taxonomic group, and blueberries currently in commercial production represent three major Vaccinium species and two ploidy levels: 4 x V

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Cécile M. Parmentier, Lisa J. Rowland, and Michael J. Linc

Three blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) genotypes, that have different chilling requirements and levels of cold hardiness, were studied. Depth of dormancy was evaluated and water status was determined, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), throughout the accumulation of chilling that leads to release from dormancy. Among the two highbush cultivars studied, `Bluecrop' (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) was the most dormant and `Gulfcoast' (Vaccinium corymbosum L. x Vaccinium darrowi Camp) was the least dormant. The rabbiteye cultivar `Tifblue' (Vaccinium ashei Reade) had an intermediate dormancy. It appeared that the cultivar with the deepest dormancy had also the highest chilling requirement (CR). The NMR results showed that `Bluecrop' buds had the lowest relaxation times (T2), indicating that water was relatively more bound in `Bluecrop' buds than in the buds of the two other cultivars. Whatever the cultivar, no significant variation of T2s and water content of the buds was noted throughout the accumulation of chilling, even after CRs were satisfied. Within 1 day of forcing (24 °C, long day), there was a shift towards freer water but no change in the water content. Forcing was ineffective in freeing water until the plants received enough chilling to satisfy their CRs.

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Sylvia J. Brooks and Paul M. Lyrene

Morphological characteristics of many derivatives from Vaccinium arboreum Marsh × Vaccinium section Cyanococcus crosses were studied. The purpose of the study was to determine if V. arboreum traits were being inherited and expressed in hybrid progeny and to identify characteristics that would enable hybrid field identification. This study focused on the F1 hybrids of V. darrowi Camp × V. arboreum (F1 hybrids) and the open-pollinated progeny of the F1 hybrids [mother is known (MIK)]. Also included in the study were the parents: V. darrowi, V. arboreum, and V. corymbosum L. (pollen parent of the MIKs). Many leaf, flower, and fruit characteristics were measured for all five taxa. Leaf characteristics included length, width, and presence or absence of stalked glands, pubescence, and marginal bump glands. The floral characteristics measured were corolla length and width, corolla aperture, pedicel length, peduncle length, bracteole length and width, and the presence or absence of anther awns and bracteoles. Berry and seed mass were the fruit characteristics investigated. Four unique V. arboreum traits were found to be expressed in the F1 and MIK hybrid populations. These were the presence of anther awns, large seed size, bracteole shape, and marginal glands. These traits should permit field identification of hybrid plants.

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Hirotoshi Tsuda, Hisato Kunitake, Mai Yamasaki, Haruki Komatsu, and Katsunori Yoshioka

In Japan, 19 native species of the genus Vaccinium are distributed from Hokkaido to the Kyushu region ( Yamazaki, 1989 ). The diploid evergreen shrub shashanbo is distributed from the east to the west of Japan, and its edible berries are commonly

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Ebrahiem M. Babiker, Stephen J. Stringer, Barbara J. Smith, and Hamidou F. Sakhanokho

range of evergreen plant species, including native Vaccinium species. Since the alternate host is not present in the southeastern states, further investigation is needed to identify the inoculum source in this area. Several southern highbush cultivars

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Dario J. Chavez and Paul M. Lyrene

Vaccinium L. section Cyanococcus L. includes diploid (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploid (2n = 4x = 48), and hexaploid (2n = 6x = 72) species native to North America ( Camp, 1945 ; Vander Kloet, 1983 , 1988 ). The main cultivated groups are lowbush

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Brent L. Black and Richard H. Zimmerman

Bottom ash from a coal-fired power plant and two composts were tested as components of soil-free media and as soil amendments for growing highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Combinations of ash and compost were compared to Berryland sand, and Manor clay loam, and compost amended Manor clay loam. The pH of all treatment media was adjusted to 4.5 with sulfur at the beginning of the experiment. In 1997, plants of `Bluecrop' and `Sierra' were planted in 15-dm3 pots containing the pH-adjusted treatment media. The first substantial crop was harvested in 1999. At the end of the 1999 season, one half of the plants were destructively harvested for growth analysis. The remaining plants were cropped again in 2000. Yield and fruit size data were collected in both seasons, and leaf and fruit samples were collected in 1999 for elemental analysis. The presence of coal ash or composted biosolids in the media had no detrimental effect on leaf or fruit elemental content. Total growth and yield of both cultivars was reduced in clay loam soil compared to Berryland sand, whereas growth and yield of plants in coal ash-compost was similar to or exceeded that of plants in Berryland sand.

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Dario J. Chavez and Paul M. Lyrene

Various techniques have been used to overcome genetic crossing barriers between species in Vaccinium . Tetraploid blueberry plants have been produced by crossing diploid and tetraploid species. The production of unreduced gametes and the

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Paul M. Lyrene

Vaccinium , which includes the commercially important crops blueberries, cranberries, lingonberries, and bilberries, is a large genus, with 150 to 450 species worldwide ( Luby et al., 1991 ). These are grouped into 35 sections ( Vander Kloet, 1997