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Bielinski M. Santos, James P. Gilreath, and Timothy N. Motis

Two field trials were conducted to determine the effect of reduced methyl bromide plus chloropicrin (MBr + Pic 67:33 v/v) rates applied under two types of virtually impermeable films (VIF) on nutsedges (Cyperus spp.) and stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus spp.) control, and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) crop yield. A split-plot design with six replications was established, with MBr + Pic rates in the main plots and mulch types as subplots. MBr + Pic rates were 0, 88, 175, and 350 lb/acre. Mulch types were low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch, Hytibar VIF, and Bromostop VIF. Results showed that there were no differences on weed and nematode control, and bell pepper fruit yield between the two types of VIF. Two exponential models characterized the nutsedge responses to MBr + Pic rates with LDPE mulch and VIF, with weed densities declining as MBr + Pic rates increased. Reducing MBr + Pic rates by one-half (175 lb/acre) under VIF provided similar nutsedge control as the full-rate (350 lb/acre) with LDPE mulch. Similar results were observed with stunt nematode, where the most effective control occurred with VIF. Bell pepper yield with LDPE mulch responded linearly to increased MBr + Pic rates. However, a logarithmic model described the response of pepper yields to the fumigant rates under VIF. The application rate of this fumigant could be effectively reduced to 25% of the commercial rate (350 lb/acre) under either VIF, without causing significant bell pepper yield losses.

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P. M. Miller

Abstract

The leaf homogenate (LH) most toxic in soil to Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Chitwood & Oteifa was of white pine (Pinus strobus L.). Other toxic LH were of dogwood (Cornus florida L.), red oak (Quercus borealis Michx. f. maxima (Marsh) Ashe, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), pachysandra (Pachysandra terminalis Sreb. & Zucc.), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.), geranium (Geranium maculatum L.) and bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Sodium nitrate at 100 mg/kg of soil increased the toxicity of new pine needles and new oak leaves. Some LH were toxic in water but not in soil. Acetone powders of some tree leaves were toxic. Some products of decay or organic matter or closely related and easily available compounds were toxic to another nematode, Tylenchorhynchus dubius (Bütschl:) or stylet nematode.

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Bielinski M. Santos, James P. Gilreath, and Timothy N. Motis

Two field trials were conducted in Bradenton, Fla., to determine the effect of reduced methyl bromide plus chloropicrin (MBr + Pic 67:33 v/v) rates applied under two types of virtually impermeable films (VIF) on nutsedges (Cyperus spp.) and stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus spp.) control, and `Capistrano' bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) crop yield. MBr + Pic rates were 0, 88, 175, and 350 lb/acre. Mulch types were low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch, Hytibar VIF, and Bromostop VIF. Results showed that there were no differences on weed and nematode control, and bell pepper fruit yield between the two types of VIF. Two exponential models characterized the nutsedge responses to MBr + Pic rates with LDPE mulch and VIF, with weed densities declining as MBr + Pic rates increased. Reducing MBr + Pic rates by one-half (175 lb/acre) under VIF provided similar nutsedge control as the full-rate (350 lb/acre) with LDPE mulch. Similar results were observed with stunt nematode, where the most effective control occurred with VIF. Bell pepper yield with LDPE mulch responded linearly to increased MBr + Pic rates. However, a logarithmic model described the response of pepper yields to the fumigant rates under VIF. The application rate of this fumigant could be effectively reduced to 25% of the commercial rate (350 lb/acre) under either VIF, without causing significant bell pepper yield losses.

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S.M. Schneider, B.D. Hanson, J.S. Gerik, A. Shrestha, T.J. Trout, and S. Gao

Methyl bromide has been used extensively in open-field perennial crop nurseries to ensure the production of plants that are free of soilborne pests and pathogens. California regulations require that nursery stock for farm planting be commercially clean with respect to economically important nematodes. Under the terms of the Montreal Protocol, the use of methyl bromide by developed countries was phased out 1 Jan. 2005. Although the perennial nursery industry in the United States largely continues to use methyl bromide under critical use exemptions and quarantine/preshipment criteria allowed under provisions of the Montreal Protocol, nursery growers need viable alternatives to this fumigant. Two fumigation trials in perennial crop field nurseries with sandy loam and clay loam soils, respectively, were conducted to compare the efficacy of fumigants applied through standard shank-injection equipment or as emulsifiable compounds applied through drip irrigation equipment. In the garden rose (Rosa multiflora) nursery trial, nematodes were detected at planting in the untreated control, no-tarpaulin 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin, and chloropicrin alone several months after treatment. Nematodes included root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) and stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus semipenetrans). At harvest 2 years later, root-knot nematode was detected in rose roots from untreated plots and plots treated with untarped 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin, metam sodium, and chloropicrin alone. In the nut tree (Prunus spp.) nursery field trial, shank-injected treatments typically provided better nematode control than the same chemicals applied via the drip lines, although weed control and marketable trees were similar among treatments.

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R. C. Funt, L. R. Krusberg, D. S. Ross, and B. L. Goulart

Abstract

Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7 benzofuranyl methylcarbamate) at 5.7 and 11.1 kg/ha reduced soil populations of lesion (Paratylenchus penetrans, Filipjev & Shuurmans Stekhoven), pin (Paratylenchus sp. Cobb), and lance (Hoplolaimus galeatus, Cobb, Filipjeu & Schuurmans Stekhoven) nematodes. The highest rates of granular and flowable carbofuran were phytotoxic on peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] planted just prior to treatment. In a subsequent experiment in soil previously planted to peach (old soil) or not previously planted to peach (new soil), trickle irrigation alone reduced dagger (Xiphinema americanum, Cobb) and lesion nematode populations. Carbofuran plus trickle irrigation reduced the dagger and lesion nematode populations and had the highest rate of tree growth in the old soil. Granular phenamiphos (ethyl-3-methyl-4-(methylthio) phenyl (1-methylethyl) phosphoridate) either alone or in combination with trickle irrigation reduced the stunt (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Steiner) nematode population. However, when phenamiphos was applied alone, tree growth was equal to the control in old soil but less than the control in new soil.

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Bielinski M. Santos, James P. Gilreath, Camille E. Esmel, and Myriam N. Siham

( Tylenchorhynchus spp.), ring nematode ( Criconemoides spp.), and sting nematode ( Belonolaimus spp.) populations ( Gilreath et al., 2005b ; Jones et al., 1995 ). Other soil fumigants need excessively high concentrations and rates to control nutsedges. Previous

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Leonor F.S. Leandro, Lisa M. Ferguson, Frank J. Louws, and Gina E. Fernandez

. penetrans level of 10 per 500 cm 3 of soil, and 31 plots (from a total of 64) had the stunt nematode ( Tylenchorhynchus Cobb) with an average count of 181 nematodes per 500 cm 3 of soil. These populations were unaffected by soil treatment and were

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Brad Geary, Corey Ransom, Brad Brown, Dennis Atkinson, and Saad Hafez

. 2001, 14 May 2002, 25 Nov. 2002, 9 June 2003, 27 Nov. 2003, and 18 May 2004. Populations of root lesion nematode, stunt nematode ( Tylenchorhynchus spp.), spiral nematode ( Helicotylenchus variocaudatus ), and ring nematode ( Criconemella xenoplax