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Mohammad Majdi, Ghasem Karimzadeh, Mohammad A. Malboobi, Reza Omidbaigi, and Ghader Mirzaghaderi

Feverfew ( Tanacetum parthenium Schulz-Bip.) as a diploid species (2 n = 2 x = 18) in the family Asteraceae has been considered for both medicinal and ornamental uses ( Brown et al., 1999 ; Foxcroft et al., 2008 ; Omidbaigi, 2009 ). Feverfew

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Jorge M. Fonseca, James W. Rushing, Nihal C. Rajapakse, Ronald L. Thomas, and Melissa B. Riley

The purpose of this review is to promote a discussion about the potential implications of herb production in controlled environments, focusing on our recent works conducted with feverfew. Research suggests that the content of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants fluctuates with changing environmental conditions. Our studies with feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium [L.] Schultz-Bip., Asteraceae) lend support to this hypothesis. Feverfew plants exposed to different water and light conditions immediately before harvest exhibited changes in content of some secondary metabolites. The highest yield of parthenolide (PRT) was in plants that received reduced-water regimes. Phenolics concentration however, was higher in plants receiving daily watering. Light immediately before harvest enhanced accumulation of PRT, but reduced the phenolic content. Notably, PRT decreased at night whereas total phenolics decreased during the photoperiod and increased at night. PRT also increased with increased plant spacing. UV light supplementation increased PRT only in plants that had undergone water stress, whereas phenolics increased when UV was applied to continuosly watered plants. Clearly, production of medicinal plants under greenhouse conditions is a promising method for controlling levels of phytochemicals through manipulation of light and water as discussed here, and possibly other environmental factors such as temperature and daylength. However, better understanding of how the environment alter secondary metabolite levels is needed as it was revealed that manipulating the environment to favor increased accumulation of one group of phytochemicals could result in a decline of other key metabolites.

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Richard L. Hassell, Robert J. Dufault, Tyron Phillips, and Teri A. Hale

Seeds of pale coneflower (Echinacea pallida), purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), and valerian (Valeriana officinalis), classified as “old” (1-year-old seed) or “fresh” (seed crop produced in the current year), were germinated at 62, 65, 69, 72, 75, 78, 82, 85, 89, and 92 °F, (16.7, 18.3, 20.6, 22.2, 23.9, 25.6, 27.8, 29.4, 31.6, and 33.3 °C). The optimum germination temperature, defined in this study as the temperature range within which the percent germination is greatest in the shortest period of time, was determined. Old and fresh pale coneflower seed germinated optimally after 5 days at 69 °F. Old purple coneflower seed required 5 d at 78 to 82 °F, but fresh seed germinated optimally after 3 days at 75 °F. Old feverfew germinated optimally after 5 days at 65 °F, but fresh seed germinated to its optimum after 5 days at 69 °F. Old and fresh valerian seed germinated to its optimum after 3 days at 75 °F.

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James W. Rushing

The production, handling, processing and marketing of over-the-counter medicinal products manufactured from plants is virtually unregulated. This can include dietary supplements, functional foods and nutraceuticals, any of which may contain botanical constituents. Of particular concern is the possible presence of human pathogens in products offered at retail. A review of literature is presented. Options for sterilizing herbal medicinal products, including fumigation, irradiation and heat treatments, are presented. Experiences of the spice industry are discussed as they relate to the development of similar protocols for herbal medicines. Methods used to ensure microbiological safety must be evaluated for their effect on the medicinally active constituents in the plant material. Very little data of this nature are available. Avenues for future research are proposed.

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Alison R. Cutlan, John E. Erwin, and James E. Simon

Parthenolide, a biologically active sesquiterpene lactone found in feverfew [Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz. Bip.], has been indirectly linked to the antimigraine action of feverfew preparations. Commercial products of feverfew leaves vary widely in parthenolide content (0-1.0%/g dwt). No comprehensive studies have quantified parthenolide variation among feverfew populations or cultivars, and whether morphological traits are correlated with this natural product. In this study, 30 feverfew accessions were examined for parthenolide content, morphological traits, and seed origin. Statistically significant differences in parthenolide levels were found among the populations studied. Parthenolide content ranged from (0.012% ± 0.017 to 2.0% ± 0.97 /g dwt) as determined by HPLC-UV-MS. Higher parthenolide levels tended to be in wild material (0.41% ± 0.27) as opposed to cultivated material (0.19% ± 0.09). Parthenolide levels correlated with flower morphology: disc flower (0.49% = B1 0.36), semi-double (0.38% ± 0.13), double (0.29% ± 0.16), and pompon-like flower (0.22 ± 0.14). Leaf color also appeared to be indicative of parthenolide levels, with the light-green/golden leafed accessions showing significantly higher parthenolide content than darker-leafed varieties, but whether this was due to inadvertent original selection of a high parthenolide-containing golden leaf selection is not yet known. This study does show that further selection for improved horticultural attributes and natural product content is promising to improve feverfew lines for the botanical/ medicinal plant industry.

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James W. Rushing, Robert J. Dufault, Richard L. Hassell, and B. Merle Shepard

Feverfew has aspirin-like properties and has been utilized for the treatment of pain, particularly migraine headache. Parthenolide is the sesquiterpene lactone believed to be responsible for the medicinal properties. The potential for utilizing existing tobacco production and handling systems for the production and postharvest handling of feverfew was investigated. In year one, 8 commercial tobacco growers each planted about one-half acre of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L. Schulz-Bip.). The yield of dry herb varied among farmers from about 122 to 772 (55 to 350 kg) pounds per half-acre. The parthenolide content of the dried herb from most producers was within the range desired by industry, but four factors precluded its salability: a) presence of foreign matter, primarily weeds; b) excessive ash content due to contamination from sandy soils; c) mold resulting from processing with excessive moisture content, and; d) insect infestation (tobacco beetles Lasioderma serricorne) during storage. All of these limitations resulted from the failure to implement good agricultural aractices (GAPs) and good manufacturing practices (GMPs) during production and handling of the product. A second planting of the feverfew was carried out with strict attention to GAPs and GMPs. In this trial, all of the dried feverfew met the requirements for sale. Here we report on the management of production and handling systems for feverfew that can enable growers to produce high quality herbs that meet the high standards for medicinal use.

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W. Garrett Owen, Alyssa Hilligoss, and Roberto G. Lopez

Production and market value of U.S. grown specialty cut flowers has increased over the past several years due to stem quality issues related to long-distance transport, regional proximity to market centers, and consumer’s willingness to purchase locally. Cut flowers are traditionally grown in field or greenhouse environments; however, high tunnels provide an alternative production environment and a number of cultural and economic advantages. Specialty cut flower species ‘Campana Deep Blue’ bellflower (Campanula carpatica), bells of ireland (Moluccella laevis), ‘Bombay Firosa’ celosia (Celosia cristata), ‘Amazon Neon Purple’ dianthus (Dianthus barbatus), ‘Fireworks’ gomphrena (Gomphrena pulchella), ‘Vegmo Snowball Extra’ matricaria (Tanacetum parthenium), and ‘Potomac Lavender’ snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) were planted in both field and high tunnel environments during the late season (early summer) in the midwestern United States. Compared with field production, high tunnel production yielded 9.1 stems/m2 (75%) for bells of ireland and 9.5 cm (15%), 16.8 cm (16%), 6.7 cm (44%), and 6.3 cm (19%) longer stems for bells of ireland, celosia, gomphrena, and matricaria, respectively. Additionally, stem length and caliper was greatest for high tunnel–grown bells of ireland, celosia, and dianthus. Our results indicate that late-season planting and production in a high tunnel is suitable for most of the species we investigated.

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Juan L. Silva, Mandar Patel, Jelena Stojanovic, Youkai Lu, Taejo Kim, and Thomas Horgan

Two pot experiments were conducted to evaluate noncomposted hair byproduct as a nutrient source for container-grown crops. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa ‘Green Leaves’) and wormwood (Artemisia annua ‘Artemis’) were grown in a commercial growth substrate amended with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, or 10% by weight hair waste or controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) or were watered with a complete water-soluble fertilizer (WSF). After harvest, yellow poppy (Glaucium flavum) was grown in the pots and substrate that previously grew wormwood, and feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) was grown in the pots and substrate previously containing lettuce. The 5% hair treatment and the commercial fertilizer rates were calculated to provide the same amount of nitrogen (N) during production of lettuce and wormwood based on 50% N availability from hair. Yields in treatments containing hair or CRF or watered with WSF were higher than in the untreated control. The highest lettuce and wormwood yields occurred with CRF followed by WSF and 5% and 10% hair treatments. However, yield of yellow poppy was higher in the hair treatments than yields in inorganic fertilizer treatments or in the untreated control. Feverfew yields did not differ among fertility treatments, but yields in fertility treatments were higher than those of control. Lettuce leaf moisture content was lower, but soluble solids were higher in plants in the hair waste treatments than in the WSF or CRF treatments. Total phenolics in lettuce did not differ among treatments. Total aerobic and coliforms plate counts were similar for all samples, averaging 6.0 and 1.2 log cfu/g, respectively. Results from this study suggest that noncomposted hair waste could be used as a nutrient source for container-grown plants. Hair waste should not be used as a single nutrient source for fast-growing plants because of the time needed for degradation of the hair before release of plant nutrients.

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Erin M.R. Clark, John M. Dole, Alicain S. Carlson, Erin P. Moody, Ingram F. McCall, Frankie L. Fanelli, and William C. Fonteno

Each year a wide variety of new cultivars and species are evaluated in the National Cut Flower Trial Programs administered by North Carolina State University and the Association of Specialty Cut Flower Growers. Stems of promising and productive cultivars from the National Trial Program were pretreated with either a commercial hydrating solution or deionized (DI) water and placed in either a commercial holding solution or DI water. Over 8 years, the vase life of 121 cultivars representing 47 cut flower genera was determined. Although there was cultivar variation within each genus, patterns of postharvest responses have emerged. The largest category, with 53 cultivars, was one in which a holding preservative increased vase life of the following genera and species: acidanthera (Gladiolus murielae), basil (Ocimum basilicum), bee balm (Monarda hybrid), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hybrids), campanula (Campanula species), celosia (Celosia argentea), common ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), coral bells (Heuchera hybrids), feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), ladybells (Adenophora hybrid), lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), lobelia (Lobelia hybrids), obedient plant (Physostegia virginiana), ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum), pincushion flower (Scabiosa atropurpurea), pinkflower (Indigofera amblyantha), seven-sons flower (Heptacodium miconioides), shasta daisy (Leucanthemum superbum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), sweet william (Dianthus hybrids), trachelium (Trachelium caeruleum), and zinnia (Zinnia elegans). Hydrating preservatives increased the vase life of four basils, coral bells, and sunflower cultivars. The combined use of hydrator and holding preservatives increased the vase life of three black-eyed susan, seven-sons flower, and sunflower cultivars. Holding preservatives reduced the vase life of 14 cultivars of the following genera and species: ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum), false queen anne's lace (Ammi species), knotweed (Persicaria hybrid), lisianthus, pineapple lily (Eucomis comosa), sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale), yarrow (Achillea millifolium), and zinnia. Hydrating preservatives reduced the vase life of 18 cultivars of the following genera and species: feverfew, lisianthus, ornamental pepper, pineapple lily, seven-sons flower, shasta daisy, sneezeweed, sweet william, sunflower, trachelium, yarrow, and zinnia. The combined use of hydrating and holding preservatives reduced the vase life of 12 cultivars in the following genera and species: false queen anne's lace, feverfew, pincushion flower, sneezeweed, sunflower, trachelium, yarrow, and zinnia. Data for the remaining 50 cultivars were not significant among the treatments; these genera and species included beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), black-eyed susan, blue mist (Caryopteris clandonensis), calendula (Calendula officinalis), campanula, cleome (Cleome hasserliana), common ninebark, dahlia (Dahlia hybrids), delphinium (Delphinium hybrids), flowering peach (Prunus persica forma versicolor), heliopsis (Heliopsis helianthoides), hemp agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum), himalayan honeysuckle (Leycesteria formosa), hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata), larkspur (Consolida hybrids), lily of the nile (Agapanthus hybrid), lisianthus, lobelia, ornamental pepper, pineapple lily, scented geranium (Pelargonium hybrid), sunflower, sweet william, and zinnia.

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Kelly M. Oates, Thomas G. Ranney, and Darren H. Touchell

petal phenotype. The appearance of the novel tubular ray florets has also occurred in induced tetraploids of Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew), another member of the Asteraceae ( Majdi et al., 2010 ). Fig. 2. Novel quilled petal morphology in tetraploid