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Jin Cui, Juanxu Liu, Min Deng, Jianjun Chen, and Richard J. Henny

Syngonium podophyllum Schott, commonly known as arrowhead vine, goosefoot plant, or nephthytis, belongs to the family Araceae and occurs indigenously on humid forest floors of Central and South America ( Croat, 1982 ). As a result of their

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R.J. Henny, D.J. Norman, and M.E. Kane

Syngonium `White Butterfly', growing in 1.6-L pots and treated in August with a single GA3 spray at 250 to 2000 mg·L–1, flowered within 86 days. Mean flower number increased with GA3 concentration. Flowers were normal in appearance and were fertile. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).

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A.A. Watad, K.G. Raghothama, M. Kochba, A. Nissim, and V. Gaba

Explant growth and shoot multiplication of Spathiphyllum and Syngonium were compared on agar-solidified medium and interfacial membrane rafts floating on liquid medium. After 25 d of culture, greater shoot multiplication and fresh mass gain were achieved by plant material grown on rafts. Shoot multiplication of Spathiphyllum and Syngonium on membrane rafts reached a maximum at 25 d, whereas the fresh mass increased throughout the culture period (40 d). The number of shoots of Spathiphyllum and Syngonium material grown on membrane rafts remained constant between 25 and 40 d of culture. The plants grown on membrane rafts also developed more roots.

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D.J. Norman, R.J. Henny, J.M.F. Yuen, and T.A. Mellich

Commercially grown cultivars of Syngonium (Araceae) are very susceptible to Myrothecium leaf spot (incited by Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr.). Therefore, cultivation of Syngonium requires rigorous sanitation and frequent applications of fungicides for disease control. The goal of this research was to identify species and noncultivated accessions of Syngonium resistant to Myrothecium leaf spot. Five commercial cultivars and 30 accessions, comprising 16 different Syngonium species, were screened for resistance to M. roridum. All five commercial cultivars were susceptible to M. roridum. However, seven species (S. neglectum, S. wendlandii, S. dodsonianum, S. erythrophyllum, S. chiapense, S. dodsonianum, and S. angustatum) showed the highest resistance, as did two noncultivated accessions of S. podophyllum. The information on disease resistance for these species and accessions will be useful in future breeding work.

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H. Wang, S. Parent, A. Gosselin, and Y. Desjardins

Micropropagated plantlets of Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex Hook. F. `Terra Mix', Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott `Florida Ruffles', and Syngonium podophyllum Schott `White Butterfly' were inoculated with two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi, Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith and G. vesiculiferum Gerderman and Trappe. They were potted in three peat-based media to determine the effects of mycorrhizal peat substrate on acclimatization and subsequent growth of micropropagated plantlets under greenhouse conditions. Symbiosis was established between the three ornamental species and VAM fungi within 4 to 8 weeks of culture in the greenhouse, but not during acclimatization. Mortality of Gerbera and Nephrolepis mycorrhizal plantlets was reduced at week 8 compared to the noninoculated control. A peat-based substrate low in P and with good aeration improved VAM fungi spread and efficiency. Mycorrhizal substrates had a long-term benefit of increasing leaf and root dry weight of Gerbera and Nephrolepis. Mycorrhizal Gerbera plants flowered significantly faster than non-mycorrhizal plants.

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Lyn A. Gettys and William T. Haller

plants in landscapes that are irrigated with herbicide-treated water. Materials and methods Anthurium, caladium, spathiphyllum, and syngonium were purchased in Apr. and May 2009 from Agri-Starts IV, Inc. in Apopka, FL. All plants were purchased as liners

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Andrew J. Macnish, Ria T. Leonard, and Terril A. Nell

Aglaonema , Dieffenbachia , Dracaena , Epipremnum , Ficus , Hedera , Philodendron , and Syngonium ( Chen et al., 2002 ). Most foliage plants used in the trade are endemic to the tropics and show tolerance to drought and low light conditions. With

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Don C. Wilkerson and Tony M. Garza

A survey of five different waste water treatment plants was conducted to identify potential variability in water quality factors. Salinity, pH, and alkalinity varied widely between sites. Mineral content did not differ significantly between sites. Syngonium spp. were subirrigated with four different combinations of treated waste water (TWW) and reverse osmosis (RO) water. Weekly measurements of EC and pH were taken and final height, width, and quality ratings were recorded. Based on these results, a 1 TWW: 1 RO water combination was then used to evaluate four different soluble fertility regimes. Salinity was the most limiting factor in the use of TWW on Syngonium spp. Growth and quality decreased as the percentage of treated waste water increased in each treatment combination. Salable plants were produced using a 1 TWW: 1 RO water combination and 100 ppm (N) fertilizer.

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A. Cutlan, G. Nordwig, R. Warner, and J.E. Erwin

Variation in red/far red leaf and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorption by an individual leaf of various ornamental hanging basket species was measured. Red/far red ratios varied from 0.30 to 0.83 for Syngonium podophyllum Schott. and Chlorophytum comosum Thunb. `vittatum', respectively. Reduction in PAR varied from 86% to 61% for those same species, respectively. Estimated state of phytochrome photoequilibria for understory crops when grown under each species was calculated. Cucumis sativus L. seedling hypocotyl elongation was measured under different species to validate hypothesized differences in stem elongation associated with differences in red/far red filtering through individual leaves. Implications with respect to light quality effects on stem elongation and dry weight accumulation of plants grown under different species are discussed.

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Harvey J. Lang and Don C. Wilkerson

Experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of paclobutrazol in solid spike form as compared to foliar spray or medium drench applications for height control of several foliage and flowering plants grown in 8-inch or 10-inch hanging baskets. Paclobutrazol was applied as either a 20 or 40 mg·liter–1 foliar spray, 1 or 2 mg·liter–1 medium drench, or 200 or 400 mg·liter–1 spike insertion per basket. Begonia × tuberhybrida `Nonstop Apricot' and Begonia × hiemalis `Barbara' treated with paclobutrazol were significantly shorter than nontreated controls. Drench applications were more effective than either spray or spike treatments for both species, with Hiemalis begonia showing severe dwarfing at both the 1 and 2 mg·liter–1 drench. Paclobutrazol treatments did not significantly affect flower number for either species. Syngonium podophyllum `White Butterfly' and Epipremnum aureum showed similar trends as the begonias; however, relative reductions in height were not as great. Plants appeared to be slightly less stretched than nontreated plants.