, 1988 ). In the most recent taxonomic proposal for potatoes ( Huamán and Spooner, 2002 ), all eight groups of cultivated potatoes were placed in one species, Solanum tuberosum. Potatoes cultivated in the United States belong to the tetraploid Tuberosum
Kathleen G. Haynes, Lincoln Zotarelli, Christian T. Christensen, and Stephanie Walker
Robert P. Sabba and Bill B. Dean
Potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) of genotypes that vary in resistance to dark pigment formation when damaged, characteristic of the physiological disorder blackspot, were assayed for free tyrosine. The tubers were also assayed for relative levels of chorismate mutase and proteinase activities, which can regulate free tyrosine levels. The susceptibility of potato tubers to blackspot was shown to be correlated to the amount of free tyrosine by third order regression (R = 0.88). Tyrosine was found to be a limiting factor in pigment development. Chorismate mutase activity (CMI and CMII) was not correlated to blackspot susceptibility of the genotypes studied. Proteinase activities of Atlantic, TXA 763-5, Ranger Russet, Russet Burbank, and Lemhi Russet tuber protein extracts measured with synthetic substrates correlated with blackspot susceptibility. This suggests that the high free tyrosine levels associated with blackspot susceptibility may be due to high levels of proteinase activity in the tuber, rather than tyrosine synthesis.
Etienne L. LeRiche, Gefu Wang-Pruski, and Valtcho D. Zheljazkov
. 2007 The effect of different N and K sources on tuber nutrient uptake, total and graded yield of potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum L.) for processing Eur. J. Agron. 26 187 197 Hughes, J.C. 1962 Chemistry of after
N.C. Yorio, R.M. Wheeler, and R.C. Weigel
Growth measurements of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Norland (NL), Denali (DN), and Kennebec (KN) were taken from 21-day-old plantlets grown in vitro. Studies were conducted in a growth chamber, with nodal explants grown in culture tubes with loose-fitted Magenta 2-way caps containing Murashige and Skoog salts with either 0, 1, 2 or 3% sucrose. The cultures received either 100 or 300 μmol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and the growth chamber was maintained at either 400 or 4000 μmol mol-1 CO2. All cvs. showed significant increases in growth on 0% sucrose media at 4000 μmol mol-1 CO2, indicating an autotrophic response. At 400 μmol mol-1 CO2, all cvs. showed an increase in total plantlet dry weight (DW) with increasing sucrose under both PPF levels. Within any sucrose treatment, the highest total DW for all cvs. resulted from 300 μmol m-2 s-1 PPF and 4000 μmol mol-1 CO2. At 4000 μmol mol-1 CO2, shoot DW declined with sucrose above 2% for DN and sucrose above 1% for NL at both PPF levels, suggesting that high sucrose levels may hinder growth when CO2 enrichment is used.
Servet Kefi, Paul E. Read, Alexander Pavlista, and Stephen D. Kachman
To determine the influence of gibberellic acid (GA3) and 6-furfuryl aminopurine (kinetin) concentrations alone and in combinations on in vitro tuberization of potato, nine treatments consisting of combinations of gibberellic acid and kinetin at three levels of concentration (0, 2, and 5 mg·liter–1) were included in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6% sucrose. Four single nodes of in vitro plantlets from Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Atlantic were placed into each magenta box. All magenta boxes were arranged in a randomized complete box design with five replications and cultured under a short photoperiod condition (8 h light/16 h dark). Gibberellic acid strongly inhibited tuberization when used alone or with kinetin, whereas kinetin induced tuberization at both 2 and 5 mg·liter–1. Although tuberization was initiated in the absence of kinetin because of the high concentration of sucrose and short photoperiod, the presence of kinetin accelerated the in vitro tuberization process of potato.
Xuan-Chun Piao, Debasis Chakrabarty, Eun-Joo Hahn, and Kee-Yoeup Paek
In vitro nodal cuttings of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) `Atlantic' and `Russet Burbank' from bioreactor culture were hydroponically cultured for 28 days using a deep flow technique (DFT) system. The response of plant growth and photosynthesis to different levels of solution electrical conductivity (EC; 0.08, 0.15, 0.22 and 0.36 S·cm-1) and pH (3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) were studied. The best growth, characters of shoot length, total shoot and root fresh and dry weight, were obtained in nutrient solution of pH 6.0 and EC 0.15 S·cm-1 for `Atlantic', while pH 7.0 and EC 0.15 S·cm-1 were found to be best for `Russet Burbank'. Plantlet growth was reduced by low solution pH (3.0) and high EC level (0.36 S·cm-1). Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were also found to be affected by EC levels. Down regulation of photosynthesis, as indicated by chlorophyll fluorescence results, were observed when potato plantlets were cultured under nutrient solution of higher EC level. Plantlet growth and photosynthetic rate increased as photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) levels increased from 50 to 250 μmol·m-2·s-1. Particularly, increasing PPF level had a more distinctive effect on plantlet growth than CO2 enrichment condition. It was apparent from this study that nutrient solution of pH 6.0 and 0.15 S·cm-1 EC in combination with high PPF level (250 μmol·m-2·s-1) were suitable for hydroponic culture of potato plantlets as it would maximize net photosynthetic rate, and achieve the highest growth rates.
Ruining Li, Jiahuan Long, Yongzhe Yan, Jiaming Luo, Zhigang Xu, and Xiaoying Liu
Potato tuber is rich in starch, proteins, and other important nutrients, making potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) one of the most important staple food and vegetable crops ( Abelenda et al., 2019 ). However, potato crops are susceptible to viral and
Chen-Yi Hung, Cindy B.S. Tong, and John R. Murray
The color of red potatoes is due to an accumulation of anthocyanins in periderm tissues. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of several factors on tuber redness. Using the red tuber-producing S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum cultivar Norland, we observed that chroma (intensity of redness) and anthocyanin content of greenhouse-grown tubers decreased as tuber weight increased. There was a slight or no increase in hue (tint). We used HPLC to determine that pelargonidin and peonidin are the major anthocyanidins (aglycones of anthocyanins) in tuber periderm. The ratio of pelargonidin to peonidin increased as tuber weight increased up to 25 g fresh weight. The decrease in chroma was not due to an increase in cell sap pH; we observed a decrease in cellular pH as tuber weight increased. Controlled-atmosphere storage had no effect on tuber chroma or anthocyanin content compared to air storage. Methyl jasmonate, sucrose, or light treatment did not increase anthocyanin accumulation. Tubers exposed to light had less anthocyanin than those kept in the dark. We are examining the developmental expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, as well as the effect of maize transcription factors on anthocyanin synthesis, in tuber periderm.
Y. Zhang and D. Donnelly
In vitro bioassays for screening and selection of salinity (NaCl)-tolerant potato have primarily focused on nodal cuttings. However, the relative tolerance of the microtuberization stage to salinized medium may be more relevant. A two-step microtuberization protocol was used in which in vitro layering was followed by microtuber induction in salinized media. `Norland', `Russet Burbank', and `Superior' shoots were layered in liquid Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal salt medium with 20 g sucrose/liter and incubated for 4 weeks at 25C with 50 μmol–m–2·s–1 photosynthetic photon flux density and 16-h day/8-h night period. Medium was replaced with liquid medium containing 80 g sucrose/liter and NaCl at 0, 80, or 160 mM. Cultures were incubated for 4 weeks at 15C with 50 μmol–m–2–s–1 photosynthetic photon flux density and 8-h day/16-h night period. Relative salinity tolerance of cultivars differed during the microtuberization stage. Low salinity (80 mM) stimulated, but high salinity (160 mM) depressed, microtuber yields compared with controls.
Harlene M. Hatterman-Valenti, Collin P. Auwarter, and Paul G. Mayland
Field trials were initiated during 2004 at a dryland site near Prosper, N.D., to evaluate the effects of simulated drift from glyphosate to `Russet Burbank' and `Red Lasoda' seed potato during the early senescence stage. Glyphosate was applied at rates 1/3, 1/6, 1/12, 1/24, and 1/48 the use rate for spring wheat desiccation on 10 Sept. 2004 with a CO2 pressurized sprayer operated at 280 L/ha and 276 kPa. The amount of a.m.S added to the spray solution was also reduced accordingly. Following harvest, samples from each plot were placed into cold storage until the following March. A subsample from each plot was slowly warmed to initiate sprout formation. Remaining samples were cut into 57-g pieces, dusted with a seed piece treatment, and stored at 18 °C with about 90% RH until planted. Plots consisted of two 3-m rows at 91 cm-row spacing with a border row on each side and three spacer plants between plots. The trial was arranged as a randomized complete block with four replications. Plots were desiccated on 12 and 19 Sept. and harvested 11 Oct. Tubers were hand-graded shortly after harvest. Results indicated that glyphosate at 70 g ae/ha or more inhibited tuber budbreak by 75% or more compared to untreated. In the field, injury was observed as delayed emergence and, in several instances, no plants emerged. Total yield for `Red Lasoda' was 34.8 Mg/ha for the untreated, which was significantly greater than glyphosate treatments of 280, 140, and 70 g ae/ha. `Russet Burbank' total yield was considerably less at 23.5 Mg/ha for the untreated. Both the untreated and glyphosate at 18 g ae/ha had significantly greater total yields compared with glyphosate treatments of 280, 140, and 70 g ae/ha.