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Stephanie E. Burnett, Donglin Zhang, Lois B. Stack, and Zhongqi He

lupins Nature 184 1588 Zhang, D. Moran, R.E. Stack, L.B. 2004 Effect of phosphorus fertilization on growth and flowering of Scaevola aemula R. Br. ‘New Wonder’ HortScience 39 1728 1731

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Donglin Zhang, Renae E. Moran, and Lois B. Stack

Scaevola aemula R.Br. (fanflower), an ornamental plant native to Australia, produces stunted growth when fertilized with high concentrations of P. To determine optimum P concentration, rooted cuttings were transplanted into 15 cm standard pots and grown with a water soluble fertilizer, where P concentrations were 0, 14.5, 29.0, 43.5, 58.0, 72.5, 87.0 mg·L-1 and all plants received 200 mg·L-1 N and 166 mg·L-1 K. Shoot growth and flowering data were taken every 21 days until the experiment was terminated after 84 days. Shoot length, number and dry weight, and leaf size were reduced significantly at P concentrations higher than 14.5 mg·L-1 with severe reduction at P levels higher than 43.5 mg·L-1. Number of flowers per plant was not affected by P concentrations in the range of 0 to 43.5 mg·L-1, but decreased significantly at P levels higher than 43.5 mg·L-1. Medium pH decreased with increase in P rate due to the acidic nature of the P fertilizer. When P was applied in every irrigation, the optimum concentration was 14.5 mg·L-1 or less. P greater than 43.5 mg·L-1 was detrimental to vegetative growth and flowering, possibly due to above optimum P or to medium acidification.

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Terri W. Starman and Millie S. Williams

The effects of concentration and method of application of uniconazole on growth and flowering of Scaevola aemula R. Br. `New Wonder', `Mini Pink Fan', `Purple Fan', and `Royal Fan', Scaevola albida (Sm.) Druce. `White Fan', and Scaevola striata `Colonial Fan' were studied, as was the efficacy of four other growth retardants on S. aemula `New Wonder'. Variables measured included plant width, flower stem number, flower stem length, flower number per stem, flower number per cm stem length, and days to flower. Uniconazole (1.0 mg·L–1) applied as a medium drench to S. aemula `New Wonder' reduced plant width and flower stem length without affecting flower stem number or time to flower. Flower number per stem and number of flowers per cm of stem length were increased, resulting in attractive, compact clusters of flowers. Paclobutrazol medium drench at 4.0 mg·L–1 gave similar results. Daminozide and ethephon sprays reduced plant width; however, flower number was reduced and ethephon delayed flowering. Ancymidol did not affect the parameters measured. When uniconazole drenches were applied to the other cultivars, plant width and flower stem length in all cultivars except `White Fan' decreased as rate increased. Spray applications reduced plant width of all cultivars except `Mini Pink Fan'. Flower stem length was not affected in any cultivar. Flowering habit was improved more in S. aemula `New Wonder', `Purple Fan', and `Royal Fan' than in the other cultivars. Chemical names used: α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon); β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); (E)-(s)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethy-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-pent-1-ene-3-ol (uniconazole).

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Terri Starman and Leonardo Lombardini

A study was conducted to characterize the morphological and physiological responses of four herbaceous perennial species subjected to two subsequent drought cycles. Lantana camara L. `New Gold' (lantana), Lobelia cardinalis L. (cardinal flower), Salvia farinacea Benth. `Henry Duelberg' (mealy sage), and Scaevola aemula R. Br. `New Wonder' (fan flower) were subjected to two consecutive 10-day drought cycles. Growth response, leaf gas exchange, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured during the experiment. The morphology of L. cardinalis and L. camara was not affected by drought, while S. farinacea had reductions in plant height and leaf area and S. aemula had reductions in dry weight. Overall, plant growth and development continued even when substrate water content was reduced to 0.13 mm3·mm-3, which indicated a level of substrate water below container capacity was sufficient for greenhouse production of these species. The drought treatments had little effect on the photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of Photosystem II. An increase in minimal fluorescence (Fo) was observed in S. aemula on the last day of the second cycle. Drought treatment caused increased leaf-level water use efficiency (WUE) at the end of the first cycle in L. cardinalis and S. aemula, but not in L. camara and S. farinacea. Plants of L. camara, S. farinacea, and S. aemula that had received drought during both cycles became more water use efficient by the end of the second cycle, but L. cardinalis did not.

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Michelle A. Grabowski and Dean K. Malvick

all symptomatic tissue. Disease severity varied among the plants tested ( Table 2 ). Scaevola aemula ‘Whirlwind White’ had significantly greater disease severity than all other genera tested except the susceptible control ‘Profusion White’ zinnia

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Prem L. Bhalla and Katherine Tozer

Plants of genus Scaevola (family, Goodeniaceae), commonly known as “fan flowers,” are mostly endemic to Australia. Commercially popular species are Scaevola aemula, S. albida, S. striata, and S. phlebopetala. These plants are used as ground covers in Australia and as hanging baskets, window boxes, and garden bed plants in Europe and America. Two aspects of in vitro culture of Scaevola are reported here; micropropagation and direct shoot regeneration. A number of commercially available cultivars of S. aemula, S. phlebopetala, S. striata and wild-collected S. phlebopetala, S. glandulifera, S. hookeri, and S. ramonissima were used for micropropagation experiments. Micropropagation medium contained salts, vitamins, L-cysteine, sucrose, and agar. Tissue-cultured shoots were rooted in hormone-free medium. A high survival percentage (>95%) was obtained when plants were transferred to soil under glasshouse conditions. Results on in vitro shoot induction and regeneration response of leaf, stem, root, node, and flower explants of two horticulturally important species of the Australian fan flower, Scaevola aemula and Scaevola striata arealso presented. Of all the explants tested, node explants of these species were the first to respond in tissue culture. Maximum number of shoot induction and regeneration was achieved from node explants of Scaevola aemula and node and stem explants of Scaevola striata. More than 95% of the regenerated shoots were rooted on the medium supplemented with 4 mg/L of IBA. The significance of above findings in assisting breeding program for new horticultural desirable cultivars of Australian fan flowers will be discussed.

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Terri Woods Starman and James E. Faust

The objective was to provide options for hanging basket production schedules by varying the number of plants per pot (one to four) and the number of manual pinches per basket (zero to two). Several species were evaluated in Spring 1995 and heat tolerance was assessed throughout the summer. Plugs (82 plugs per flat) were transplanted into 25-cm hanging baskets in a 22/18°C (venting/night temperature set points) glasshouse. Bacopa speciosa `Snowflake', Brachycome iberidifolia `Crystal Falls', Helichrysum bracteatum `Golden Beauty', Scaevola aemula `New Blue Wonder', and Streptocarpella hybrid `Concord Blue' produced quality baskets with three or more plugs per basket and no pinch. Pentas lanceolata `Starburst' and Lysimachia procumbens (Golden Globes) produced quality baskets with fewer than three plants per basket if plants received at least one pinch, however length of growing time was increased. Pentas lanceolata `Starburst', Scaevola aemula `New Blue Wonder', and Streptocarpella hybrid `Concord Blue' proved to be heat tolerant, blooming throughout the summer. Bacopa speciosa `Snowflake', Brachycome iberidifolia `Crystal Falls', and Lysimachia procumbens (Golden Globes) were not heat tolerant, i.e., ceased developing flowers in June and resumed flowering in September. Bidens ferulifolium did not produce an acceptable quality hanging basket under any experimental treatments.

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A. Cutlan, J.E. Erwin, H. Huntington, and J. Huntington

Lamium maculatum L. `White Nancy', Scaevola aemula R. `New Blue Wonder', Verbena × hybrida Groenl. & Ruempl. `Tapian Blue', and Calibracoa × hybrida `Cherry Pink' were placed under different photoperiod treatments at constant 15, 20, 25, or 30 ± 2°C air temperature. Photoperiod treatments were 9 hr, ambient daylight (≈8 hr) plus night interruption lighting (2200–0200 hr, 2 μmol·m–2·s–1 from incandescent lamps), or ambient daylight plus continuous light (100 μmol·m–2·s–1 light from high-pressure sodium lamps). Data on plant development and rootability of cuttings from each environment was collected. Days to anthesis was lowest when plants were grown under the continuous lighting treatment across species. Verbena and Calibracoa stem elongation was greatest when grown under 30°C under continuous lighting. Species were classified as to photoperiodic flower induction groups. Implications of these data with respect to propagating and finishing these crops are discussed.

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Millie S. Williams, Terri W. Starman, and James E. Faust

The photoperiodic responses were determined for the following species: Bacopa speciosa `Snowflake', Bidens ferulifolium, Brachycome multifida `Crystal Falls', Helichrysum bracteatum'Golden Beauty', Lysimachia procumbens (Golden Globes), Pentas lanceolata `Starburst', Scaevola aemula `New Blue Wonder', Streptocarpella hybrid `Concord Blue', and Streptosolen jamesonii (Orange Browallia). Each plant species was grown at 8-, 10-, 12-, 14-, and 16-hour photoperiods. Photoperiods were provided by delivering 8 hours sunlight, then pulling black cloth and providing daylength extension with incandescent bulbs. Bacopa speciosa `Snowflake', Bidens ferulifolium, Brachycome multifida `Crystal Falls', Helichrysum bracteatum `Golden Beauty', Scaevola aemula `New Blue Wonder', and Streptocarpella hybrid `Blue Concord' were day neutral, i.e., no difference in days to visible bud or days to anthesis in response to photoperiod were observed. Pentas lanceolata `Starburst' and Lysimachia procumbens (Golden Globes) were quantitative long day plants, i.e., days to anthesis decreased as daylength increased. No difference in days to visible bud, number of lateral shoots, number of nodes, or internode length were observed for Pentas lanceolata `Starburst'; however, days to anthesis for 14- and 16-hour photoperiods occurred 9 days earlier than 8-hour photoperiods. Days to visible bud for Lysimachia procumbens (Golden Globes) occurred 7 days earlier and days to anthesis was 9 days earlier under 14- and 16-hour photoperiods than 8-hour photoperiods. By week 8, only one flower per plant developed in the 8-hour photoperiod while 11 flowers per plant developed in the 14-hour photoperiod. Streptosolen jamesonii (Orange Browallia) was a qualitative short day plant. There was no difference in the days to anthesis between 8- and 10-hour daylength, each averaging 36 days from start of photoperiod treatment. Plants under 12- to 16-hour photoperiods did not flower.

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Louis B. Anella, Michael A. Schnelle, and Dale M. Maronek

Oklahoma Proven (OKP) is a plant promotion and evaluation program designed to help consumers choose plants appropriate for Oklahoma gardens. Aiding consumers with plant selection will lead to greater gardening success, enthusiasm, and increased sales for Oklahoma green industries. There are two major facets to the program: marketing, coordinated by Dr. Lou Anella, and evaluation, coordinated by Dr. Michael Schnelle. Plants to be promoted by OKP will be selected by an OKP executive committee based on recommendations from an OKP advisory committee comprised of industry professionals, cooperative extension specialists and educators, Oklahoma Botanical Garden and Arboretum affiliate members, and Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture faculty. Plants chosen for OKP must meet the following selection criteria: appropriate for gardens throughout the state of Oklahoma; readily available in the trade; limited input required, i.e. few pest or disease problems, tolerant of Oklahoma's diverse soil types and weather conditions; noninvasive; can be profitably produced. The OKP Advisory Board selected the following OKP Selections for 2000: Taxodium distichum; Spiraea japonica `Magic Carpet'; Verbena canadensis `Homestead Purple'; and Scaevola aemula. Promotional materials, such as posters and signs, will be available just after the first of the year, and the promotional push will begin in early March. Posters and signs will be distributed to retailers throughout the state free-of-charge and pot stakes and hang tags will be sold to wholesalers as a means of generating income for the Oklahoma Proven program. OKP plants will also be promoted through the television show “Oklahoma Gardening,” extension newsletters, and the press.