Three perennial species, wine sage (Salvia spp. Sell x roenen Schultes `Van Houttei'), blue anise sage (Salvia gauranitica St.-Hil. Ex Benth. `Black and Blue'), and indigo spires salvia (S. longispicata Martius Galeotti × S. farinacea Benth. `Indigo Spires') were transplanted in containers filled with a biosolid-yard waste compost, a commercial peat-based mix, or a mixture of 1 compost: 1 peat-based mix by volume) and grown under ebb-and-flow, drip, or manual irrigation systems. Initial physical, chemical, and elemental analyses of the media indicated that compost alone had higher pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total porosity (TP), bulk density (BD), particle density (PD), N, C, P, Ca, Zn, Cu, Fe, and B; lower initial moisture, Mg and Al; and similar Mn contents than did the 100% peat-based medium. Heavy metal (Cd and Pb) contents of compost did not exceed EPA 503 Rule limits for biosolid usage. After 6 weeks, plants were measured for leaf nutrient content, growth (leaf and stem dry weights, stem lengths), and quality (number of flowers, leaf greenness, and subjective quality ratings). At 6 weeks, plants grown in 50% or 100% compost generally had higher leaf K, P, and Mn; similar N and Ca; and lower Mg, Fe, and Al content than plants grown in the 100% peat-based medium. Plants grown in media amended with compost generally produced similar or slightly smaller plants (stem weight, leaf weight, and stem length) than when grown in peat-based media. Plants irrigated by ebb and flow resulted in higher (`Van Houttei') or similar (`Indigo Spires') dry stem weights than plants irrigated manually or with drip irrigation. Plants grown in compost had leaf SPAD readings (leaf greenness), number of flowers, and visual quality ratings that were generally similar (`Indigo Spires') or slightly reduced (`Van Houttei') than plants grown in peat-based media. However, for each species (except for `Van Houttei' grown in 50% compost using drip irrigation), plants were of marketable quality, regardless of irrigation system or medium. This study suggests that compost may serve as a viable alternative substrate for peat in the production of containerized perennials using ebb-and-flow, manual, or drip irrigation systems.
S.B. Wilson, P.J. Stoffella, and D.A. Graetz
Cynthia B. McKenney, Sandra A. Balch, Victor Hegemann, and Susan P. Metz
Mealy blue sage ( Salvia farinacea var. farinacea Benth) is an attractive wildflower native to a wide range in the southern United States, including Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma ( Correll and Johnston, 1970 ; Diggs et al., 1999 ). Mealy blue
Joseph Tychonievich and Ryan M. Warner
With 900 species, native to every continent except Antarctica and Australia ( Mabberly, 2008 ) and possessing a myriad of growth habits and flower colors, the genus Salvia represents an extraordinary range of diversity. Several species are widely
The seed-producing system of salvias (Salvia splendens Sello) was investigated. The number of florets opening per day per plant increased with the increase in days from anthesis. Pollinators that effectively worked were small-sized insects. High pollen viability was observed on the stigmatic surface, and pollen tubes reached the ovules within 3 hours after pollination. Fertilized ovules became mature seeds within 25 days after fertilization. Pollination within 1 day after opening of florets resulted in a high percentage of seed setting. The pollen-ovule ratios indicated that salvias were facultative xenogamous. Actually, the salvias had heterostyle florets and the ability to set seeds without pollinators.
F. Todd Lasseigne, Stuart L. Warren, Frank A. Blazich, and Thomas G. Ranney
Salvia (salvia) comprises one of the largest genera of flowering plants in the world with 900 to 950 species occurring worldwide except in Australia ( Clebsch, 1997 ; Sytsma and Walker, 2003 ). As ornamental garden plants, salvias enjoy great
Seenivasan Natarajan and Jeff Kuehny
One of the greatest impediments to the production of marketable ornamental herbaceous plants in the southern U.S. is high temperature stress. Exposure of plants to sublethal temperature (heat preconditioning) prior to sustained heat stress helps some plants to tolerate subsequent heat stress, a phenomenon often referred as acquired thermotolerance. The objective of this experiment was to examine various morphological, physiological, and anatomical responses of two red varieties of each of the `Vista' (heat tolerant) and `Sizzler' (heat sensitive) series of Salvia splendens to heat preconditioning (HC) and subsequent heat stress treatments [challenging temperatures (CT)]. Cultivars of salvia were subjected to short duration (3 hours) HC of 35 °C every third day until 5 weeks after germination and subsequent exposure to two CT treatments: 30/23 °C and 35/28 °C (day/night) cycles in growth chambers until flowering. Plant growth, marketable quality, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis declined for `Sizzler' without HC treatment. Compared with nonpreconditioned plants, heat-preconditioned `Sizzler' had 38.28% higher root dry weight, 95% greater leaf thickness, and 50% higher marketable quality at 35/28 °C heat stress condition. Heat preconditioning helped both `Vista' and `Sizzler' to survive in both the heat stress treatments. `Vista' had greater heat-tolerant traits than `Sizzler'; these traits were enhanced with heat preconditioning treatment. The results demonstrated that heat preconditioning enhanced heat tolerance in varieties of salvia, which could be related to heat-tolerant traits, such as dense plant growth with shorter internodes, thicker stems, greater stomatal conductance, and extensive root growth that compensated for the transpiration water loss and cooling effect.
Seenivasan Natarajan and Jeff S. Kuehny
( Nicotiana rustica L. var. pumila Schrank) ( Crafts-Brandner and Law, 2000 ). Inhibition of photosynthetic CO 2 fixation under high temperature conditions has been documented in many plant species, including salvia ( Salvia splendens ). Under ambient
Heidi M. Wollaeger and Erik S. Runkle
with peaks of the relative quantum efficiency curve ( McCree, 1972 ) make a logical choice for sole-source commercial plant production ( Mitchell et al., 2012 ). Previous results with tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), salvia ( Salvia splendens
Heidi Marie Wollaeger and Erik S. Runkle
treatments to help facilitate the production of young specialty crops with desirable morphological characteristics. Materials and Methods Plant materials. Seeds of tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ‘Early Girl’), salvia ( Salvia splendens ‘Vista Red
Bo-Ling Liu, Zhi-Bin Fan, Ze-Qun Liu, Xun-Hong Qiu, and Yan-Hong Jiang
The genus Salvia (family Lamiaceae) consists of nearly 1000 species ( Claßen-Bockhoff et al., 2004 ); many of them are used as herbs or traditional medicines because they contain active compounds that function against tumors, inflammation, and