The effects of concentration and method of application of uniconazole on growth and flowering of Scaevola aemula R. Br. `New Wonder', `Mini Pink Fan', `Purple Fan', and `Royal Fan', Scaevola albida (Sm.) Druce. `White Fan', and Scaevola striata `Colonial Fan' were studied, as was the efficacy of four other growth retardants on S. aemula `New Wonder'. Variables measured included plant width, flower stem number, flower stem length, flower number per stem, flower number per cm stem length, and days to flower. Uniconazole (1.0 mg·L–1) applied as a medium drench to S. aemula `New Wonder' reduced plant width and flower stem length without affecting flower stem number or time to flower. Flower number per stem and number of flowers per cm of stem length were increased, resulting in attractive, compact clusters of flowers. Paclobutrazol medium drench at 4.0 mg·L–1 gave similar results. Daminozide and ethephon sprays reduced plant width; however, flower number was reduced and ethephon delayed flowering. Ancymidol did not affect the parameters measured. When uniconazole drenches were applied to the other cultivars, plant width and flower stem length in all cultivars except `White Fan' decreased as rate increased. Spray applications reduced plant width of all cultivars except `Mini Pink Fan'. Flower stem length was not affected in any cultivar. Flowering habit was improved more in S. aemula `New Wonder', `Purple Fan', and `Royal Fan' than in the other cultivars. Chemical names used: α-cyclopropyl-α-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-pyrimidinemethanol (ancymidol); butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon); β-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); (E)-(s)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethy-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-pent-1-ene-3-ol (uniconazole).
Terri W. Starman and Millie S. Williams
Prem L. Bhalla and Katherine Tozer
Plants of genus Scaevola (family, Goodeniaceae), commonly known as “fan flowers,” are mostly endemic to Australia. Commercially popular species are Scaevola aemula, S. albida, S. striata, and S. phlebopetala. These plants are used as ground covers in Australia and as hanging baskets, window boxes, and garden bed plants in Europe and America. Two aspects of in vitro culture of Scaevola are reported here; micropropagation and direct shoot regeneration. A number of commercially available cultivars of S. aemula, S. phlebopetala, S. striata and wild-collected S. phlebopetala, S. glandulifera, S. hookeri, and S. ramonissima were used for micropropagation experiments. Micropropagation medium contained salts, vitamins, L-cysteine, sucrose, and agar. Tissue-cultured shoots were rooted in hormone-free medium. A high survival percentage (>95%) was obtained when plants were transferred to soil under glasshouse conditions. Results on in vitro shoot induction and regeneration response of leaf, stem, root, node, and flower explants of two horticulturally important species of the Australian fan flower, Scaevola aemula and Scaevola striata arealso presented. Of all the explants tested, node explants of these species were the first to respond in tissue culture. Maximum number of shoot induction and regeneration was achieved from node explants of Scaevola aemula and node and stem explants of Scaevola striata. More than 95% of the regenerated shoots were rooted on the medium supplemented with 4 mg/L of IBA. The significance of above findings in assisting breeding program for new horticultural desirable cultivars of Australian fan flowers will be discussed.