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Kim E. Hummer

Raspberry cultivation for fruit only became widespread in European countries by the 16th century ( Jennings, 1988 ). Modern uses of Rubus , the blackberries and raspberries, include consumption as delicious fresh fruits and processed in jams

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Brent Black, James Frisby, Kimberly Lewers, Fumiomi Takeda, and Chad Finn

Some caneberry ( Rubus L.) production regions experience dramatic seasonal variation in bloom date and fruit ripening time. Phenology and biology of flowering in both cultivated and wild raspberries ( Rubus idaeus L.) and blackberries have been

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James R. Ballington, Wes Messinger, David F. Williams, and Emilia Garcia

Intermountain valleys in the Andean region of Bolivia are rich in diversity of Rubus species. Species in both subgenus Orobatus and subgenus Rubus occur in this region. These species include Rubus betonicifolius, R. bogotensis, R. Boliviensis, R. briaceus, R. holtenii, R. imperialis, R. macrocarpus, R. megalococcus, R. nubigenus, and R. roseus. Rubus macrocarpus and R. roseus have previously been determined to be worthy of domestication and commercialization as new crops in tropical highlands. The potential of the other species as new bramble crops and for use in breeding will be discussed.

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Archana Khadgi and Courtney A. Weber

terminology, the term prickle for the presence of epidermal appendages and prickle-free for the absence is used in this manuscript. The genus Rubus is an excellent member of the family Rosaceae to understand prickle initiation and development. Fruits of the

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Saki Toshima, Marika Fujii, Momoko Hidaka, Soya Nakagawa, Tomonari Hirano, and Hisato Kunitak

Rubus (Rosaceae) comprises more than 740 species with additional commercially cultivated raspberry ( R. idaeus ssp. idaeus) and blackberry ( R. fruticosus ) ( Gu et al., 1990 ). The fruit are used as ingredients in fresh dishes and processed

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Inga A. Zasada and Patrick P. Moore

Plant–parasitic nematodes were first reported in Rubus species in North America in the 1930s, when Pratylenchus species were associated with declining red raspberries ( Rubus idaeus L.) ( McElroy, 1992 ). Of the plant–parasitic nematodes

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Kim E. Hummer, Les H. Fuchigami, Vonda Peters, and Neil Bell

Stem and bud tissues of promocanes from more than 260 Rubus genotypes were evaluated for mid-winter cold hardiness after laboratory freezing in January 1990. T50 values were calculated for cane samples of red, yellow, black and purple raspberry, and blackberry cultivars, hybrids and species. Red raspberries exhibited the hardiest stem tissue, although several purple raspberries (Rubus sp. cvs. Brandywine, Royalty) survived as low as -33 C. Fall fruiting red raspberries, such as R. idaeus L. cvs. Zeva Remontante, Indian Summer, St. Regis, and Fallred, survived from -23 to -25 C. Summer-bearing cultivars, Canby and Puyallup, survived to -30 C. Stems of several black raspberries (R. occidentalis L. cvs. New Logan, Bristol) survived to -27 C. Stems of the hardiest blackberry cultivars, (R. sp. cvs. Black Satin, Smoothstem) survived to -22 C. In most genotypes the region of the bud at the axis of the stem was less hardy than tissues within the bud scales. Buds tissue was 2 to 10 C less hardy than stem tissue. Field plants were also visually rated for cold injury following record low temperatures occurring in 1989, 1990, and 1991.

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Horacio E. Alvarado-Raya, Rebecca L. Darnell, and Jeffrey G. Williamson

Interest in off-season production of red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.) is increasing as a result of the high demand for a limited supply ( Darnell et al., 2006 ; Knight et al., 1996 ; Pritts et al., 1999 ; Schloemann, 2001 ) and the resultant

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Barbara M. Reed

In vitro cold storage of Rubus germplasm was investigated using several environmental conditons and types of storage containers. Shoot cultures of Rubus species and cultivars were grown in either tissue culture bags or 20 × 150 mm glass tubes and compared for plant condition and survival under various storage conditions. Cultures stored at 10 C in the dark were in poor condition after 6 months. Cultures kept at 4 C were in much better condition and had higher survival rates after 18 months when stored with a 12 h daylength rather than total darkness. Overall there were no differences in survival or condition between cultures in tubes and bags. Contamination rates were 15% in tubes and 0% in bags. Plants in tissue culture bags could be stored for 9 months at 25 C with 16 h light when the nitrogen level of the MS medium was reduced to 25% and the medium volume was increased from 10 to 20 ml per bag. Genotype differences were apparent under all conditions tested. The best storage condition for Rubus germplasm was 4 C with 12 h light. Plastic tissue culture bags were preferred over tubes due to lower contamination rates.

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Kim E. Hummer and Derek N. Peacock

Many lesser-known wild Rubus species from Ecuador, the People's Republic of China, and North America have been obtained on recent U.S. Dept. of Agriculture plant-collecting expeditions. In this study, the seed size of 43 Rubus species was measured. An 80-fold range in seed weight was observed within the genus. Asian species in the subgenera Idaeobatus and Malachobatus had the lightest seed, ranging from 0.3 mg (R. eustephanus Focke ex Diels) to 1.2 mg (R. coreanus Miq.). The seeds of ≈80% of the species examined weighed <2 mg. Seeds of European species in the subgenera Idaeobatus and Rubus (formerly Eubatus of Focke) ranged from 1.3 to 3.0 mg. The South American Orobatus included several of the heaviest-seeded species. Rubus megalococcus Focke (subgenus Rubus) had the heaviest and largest seed weighing 24.2 mg. Seed weight was not related to ploidy level in wild species. Seed weight and length were positively correlated. Seed flatness was not related to seed length. Several of the smaller-seeded Asian species, such as R. minusculus A. Lev. & Van., R. hirsutus Thunb., and R. eustephanus, had more drupelets per fruit than did those of larger-seeded species. This heritable trait may be useful in breeding for increased fruit size.