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Emilio Nicolás, Trinitario Ferrandez, José Salvador Rubio, Juan José Alarcón, and Ma Jesús Sánchez-Blanco

use of these species is found in the literature. The use of wild Mediterranean plant species, including Rosmarinus officinalis , has increased and may be an interesting solution because of their good resistance to adverse environmental conditions

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Azza Abdel-Aziz Tawfik and P. E. Read

Regeneration from callus of rosemary has not been reported. Leaf segment, meristem-tip and shoot-tip explants of Rosmarinus officinalis were cultured on a Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with five concentrations of the cytokinin thidiazuron (TDZ) alone or in combination with 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA). Callus was formed on the base and leaves of the shoottips after 6 weeks when cultured under cool white fluorescent light (26 u mol·S-1 m-2) on MS containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mg/l TDZ. Calti were transferred to fresh MS medium supplemented with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 or 1.0 mg/l TDZ or 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 or 8.0 mg/l benzyladenine (BA) where shoot formation occurred. Essentiality of IAA was not clear from these experiments and further research is underway to refine regeneration protocol

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Allan M. Armitage, James Garner, and Jimmy S. Greer

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Daniel F. Warnock and Charles E. Voigt

Greenhouse production of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) as small potted Christmas tree topiaries for holiday sales has become necessary for many companies marketing to large retail outlets. Topiaries must be sheared multiple times to obtain an acceptable Christmas tree shape. Cultivars vary in physical attributes, suggesting that they may respond differentially to mechanical shearing during production. This study assessed sixteen rosemary cultivars for their potential as potted Christmas tree shaped topiaries. Beginning July 2001, rosemary plants derived from vegetative propagation of shoot tips were provided high fertility and maximum light in a greenhouse. From August to October, plants were pruned monthly for a total of three shearing events. The crop was considered mature on the targeted market date of 5 Dec. Final plant quality was visually assessed using a 1 to 5 scale that accounted for taper, plant-to-pot ratio, canopy density, foliage quality, and overall appeal, with one point being removed for each factor not meeting industry expectations. The cultivars varied in their performance as Christmas tree shaped topiaries with most being unacceptable due to minimal basal branching or excessive leaf burn that negatively impacted shape, taper, and aesthetics. Six of the cultivars, `Taylor's Blue', `Herb Cottage', `Joyce DeBaggio' (Golden Rain), `Shady Acres', `Rexford' (Rex), and an unnamed clone, were suitable for commercial use having visual ratings ranging from 3.8 to 4.5. These cultivars had equally healthy foliage with little damage. `Taylor's Blue', `Shady Acres', `Joyce DeBaggio' (Golden Rain), the unnamed clone, and `Herb Cottage' had foliar damage ratings ranging from 3.3 to 3.8 and were not significantly different from the most healthy cultivars, `Logee White' (Thinleaf White), `Salem', and `Hill Hardy', all of which had mean ratings of 4.0. These cultivars should be examined for additional attributes that may enhance their performance as Christmas tree shaped topiaries.

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Thomas H. Boyle, Lyle E. Craker, and James E. Simon

Plants of rosemary [Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae)] were grown in pots containing a soilless (1 sphagnum peat:1 perlite) or soil-based (1 sphagnum peat: 1 perlite:1 field soil) growing medium and fertilized with either 12N-5.2P-12.5K controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) at 9.0 g/pot; constant liquid fertilization (LF) with 20N4.3P-16.7K at 150 mg N/liter; constant LF at 150 mg N/liter, plus CRF at 4.5 g/pot; weekly LF at 150 mg N/liter; or weekly LF at 150 mg N/liter, plus CRF at 4.5 g/pot. Constant LF plus CRF generally reduced plant height and depressed shoot fresh weight relative to other fertilizer regimes. Essential oil content was highest in plants receiving weekly LF. Plants grown in the soil-based mix were shorter, shoot fresh and dry weight tended to be lower, and essential oil yield was higher when compared to plants grown in the soilless mix. Satisfactory growth was obtained in both media when rosemary plants were fertilized with 12N-5.2P-12.5K CRF at 9.0 g/pot or weekly LF with 20N<.3P-16.7K at 150 mg N/liter.

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Iro Kokkinou, Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, and Dimitra Varela

able to survive for 2 weeks which was expected due to the shallow depth of the green roof substrate layer. Rosmarinus officinalis. The slope of the moisture curve reduction of the nonirrigated plants was similar to that of helichrysum and Greek

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Kwang Jin Kim, Myeong Il Jeong, Dong Woo Lee, Jeong Seob Song, Hyoung Deug Kim, Eun Ha Yoo, Sun Jin Jeong, Seung Won Han, Stanley J. Kays, Young-Wook Lim, and Ho-Hyun Kim

formaldehyde/cm 2 of leaf area over 5 h and was the most effective of the 86 species tested. In contrast, D. deremensis was the least effective. Of the herbs, Lavandula spp., Pelargonium spp., and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most effective in

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Weiguang Yi and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

of drying conditions and extraction protocols on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of selected herbs. Materials and Methods Plant materials, harvesting, and drying. Three herbs, rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis ), motherwort ( Leonurus

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Shuyang Zhen, Stephanie E. Burnett, Michael E. Day, and Marc W. van Iersel

use water to produce biomass. We selected three important horticultural species for which water requirements have not been quantified. Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis ) is an evergreen shrub/subshrub native to the Mediterranean region that is widely

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Hany M. El-Naggar, Paul E. Read, and Susan L. Cuppett

Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis is a member of the Lamiaceae. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a very strong antioxidant produced in the chloroplast, and used to protect plant tissues against oxidative stress. A number of investigations showed that the sucrose concentration in the callus growing medium greatly influenced the production of secondary metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway such as RA. The aim of this study was to test the effect of elevated sucrose concentrations (2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, and 6% sucrose) and the effect of light and dark treatments on the production of RA in the callus of five different genotypes. The genotypes were Majorca, Rosmarinus officinalis, Pine Scented, Madeline Hill, and APR. It was found that the dark treatment produces more RA than the light treatment in all genotypes, and in all sucrose concentrations. The RA concentration increased with increasing the sucrose concentration from 2%—reaching the highest concentration at 4% and 5% in most genotypes. The RA concentration declined again at 6% sucrose in all genotypes. We concluded that for the extraction of RA from rosemary callus it is preferred to be produced in the dark—this will save energy and will produce more RA than the light treatment. Also it is preferred to use sucrose concentration at 4% for genotypes Rosmarinus officinalis, Pine Scented, and APR; and 3% sucrose for genotype Madeline Hill in the dark condition. While for the light condition, it is preferred to use 5% sucrose with genotypes Majorca, Rosmarinus officinalis, Pine Scented, and Madeline Hill; and 4% sucrose for genotype APR.