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Yan-xin Duan, Ying Xu, Ran Wang, and Chun-hui Ma

‘Akizuki’ ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), a Japanese pear, plays an important role in pear production in China because of its good quality characteristics such as large fruit, pretty shape, delicate pulp. and high soluble solid content. However, with the

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Zhengwang Jiang, Feiyan Tang, Hongwen Huang, Hongju Hu, and Qiliang Chen

The sand pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most important fruit tree crops in China and is extensively cultivated in central and southwest China. The species occurs naturally in southern and western China, recognized as the center of

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Dongfeng Liu, Junbei Ni, Ruiyuan Wu, and Yuanwen Teng

activity and gene expression. Fig. 1. Temperature schedule for high-temperature treatment during late stage of fruit enlargement in Pyrus pyrifolia ‘Wonhwang’. ( A ) Daily high temperature (40 °C) from 1200 to 1500 hr for high-temperature treatment. ( B

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Zhong-Bin Wu, Hsin-Mei Ku, Yuh-Kun Chen, Chung-Jan Chang, and Fuh-Jyh Jan

information on the molecular variability and phylogenetic relationship among ACLSV populations. Materials and Methods Virus isolation and maintenance. Leaves of the pear cultivar Hengshen ( Pyrus pyrifolia var. Hengshen) showing symptoms of

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Akihiro Itai, Takaaki Igori, Naoko Fujita, Mayumi Egusa, Motoichiro Kodama, and Hideki Murayama

concomitant with gene expression of ethylene biosynthetic enzymes. Materials and Methods Plant material. Japanese pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) ‘Nijisseiki’ was grown at the Tottori University orchard. Immature leaves were detached and transferred to the

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Chun-hui Shi, Xiao-qing Wang, Xue-ying Zhang, Lian-ying Shen, Jun Luo, and Yu-xing Zhang

Fruit color is a commercially important quality for sand pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Sand pear can be divided into russet, semi-russet, and green types based on the color of the peel, which is typically composed of a cuticle layer, an epidermis

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Jae-Young Lee*, Yong-Koo Kim, and Hee-Seung Park

To maintain appropriate tree shapes for Asian pear trees, multi-leader system would be more suitable, which could be obtained from the proper training systems. Controlling apical dominance should be the major factor for tree shape management and this might be modified by branch bending or pruning methods. When the tree shape was managed with Alternate Fan System, too narrower branch angle depressed flower bud formation because of the vigorous shoot growth but too wider angle also decreased that formation because of the numerous water sprouts. The tree with 75 degrees of internally deviated angle performed superior result in fruiting process. Additionally, heading-back pruning could be another for water sprout emerging. For that reason, the severer heading-back pruning stimulated the more water sprout emerging. The proper pruning method could be obtained by considering the relation between main stem width and sum of remained branch width.

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Masanori Kadota, Takashi Hirano, Kiyotoshi Imizu, and Yoshiji Niimi

Effects of PA on in vitro shoot proliferation and root formation were investigated using shoot cultures of three Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars. PA inhibited shoot multiplication and promoted initiation and development of roots in the cultured shoots of three cultivars, resulting in increasing the proportion of rooted shoots. Chemical name used: pyroligneous acid (PA).

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Wol-Soo Kim and Jung-An Jo

Many trials to supply germanium to fruit have been carried out since tests have confirmed germanium's role as a medical substance. Supplying germanium in orchards by soil and foliar application was not effective because of loss from rainfall. In order to increase germanium absorption by fruit, this study carried out tree trunk injections during the growing season. Two types of germanium, GeO (inorganic type) and Ge-132 (organic type), in concentrations of 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg·L–1 were supplied to `Niitaka' pear trees by trunk injection (1.5 L/tree), four times at 15-day intervals from June 2004. The treatment with 50 mg·L–1 GeO showed decreased fruit weight, but 50 mg·L–1 Ge-132 showed no difference to the control and other treatments. Fruit lenticels were increased in size by all of the Ge treatments in comparison to control fruit. Soluble solids as well as Hunter value `a' of the fruits of all Ge treatments were higher than that of the control. Flesh browning after peeling the fruit was delayed by the germanium treatment, and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activities were lowered. Postharvest potentials were maintained at high levels for fruit firmness, physiological disorders, and decayed fruit during cold storage at 0 to 1 °C for 2 months.

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Fumio Tamura, Kenji Tanabe, Akihiro Itai, and Hiroshi Tanaka

The dormancy of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) floral buds was broken by prolonged chilling or short-term high-temperature treatment (45 °C for 4 hours). Changes in the protein profiles of the floral buds were studied using two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis (2-DE). The quantities of nine cold-induced proteins (CIPs) increased in the floral buds with increases in chill unit (CU) value, but did not change rapidly when bud dormancy was near completion. When dormancy of floral buds was broken by high-temperature treatment, nine heat-shock proteins (HSPs) accumulated. These HSPs were distinct from the CIPs. The isoelectric point of the 19-kDa CIP shifted to the basic side by high-temperature treatment as well as by chilling. These results suggest that the 19-kDa protein may be a usable marker to measure the degree of bud dormancy in Japanese pear.