During the early 1900s, several plant exploration trips to the Orient were made to collect Pyrus species from Japan, China, Korea, and Manchuria to search for resistance to fire blight [Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winsl. et al.]. Following numerous inoculations in various tree tissues, Reimer (15) reported the four most important species, ranked in descending order of blight resistance, as follows: P. ussuriensis Maxim, P. calleryana Deche, P. betulaefolia Bunge, and P. pyrifolia (Burn.) f. Nak. Pyrus ussuriensis and P. pyrifolia were used in earlier breeding programs and are the parent species of many oriental cultivars. However, their textures and flavors have not been accepted by most Americans. P. calleryana also has been used in the USD A pear breeding program, and selections of the 3rd backcross generation appear useful only for resistance.