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Xiaoli Ma, Xuefeng Liu, Pingwei Xiang, Shichun Qiu, Xiangcheng Yuan, and Mei Yang

Prunus salicina Lindl. is native to Yunan and distributed in southwestern provinces in China where it has been cultivated for many years. Gummosis is a global disease, which occurs mainly on the tree trunk, main branch, and the collateral. At the

Open access

Xia Qiu, Haonan Zhang, Huiyi Zhang, Changwen Duan, Bo Xiong, and Zhihui Wang

Plum ( Prunus salicina ) is one of the most important stone fruits cultivated worldwide ( Li et al., 2015 ). Plum fruits are rich in fiber and polyphenolics ( Kim et al., 2003 ; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis et al., 2001 ) and are becoming increasingly

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Gal Sapir, Raphael A. Stern, Martin Goldway, and Sharoni Shafir

Self-incompatibility (SI) is the ability of a fertile hermaphrodite flowering plant to prevent self-fertilization by discriminating between self and nonself pollen. Japanese plum ( Prunus salicina Lindl.), a species of the Rosaceae family

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Peng Li, Weifeng Wu, Faxing Chen, Xinghui Liu, Yongan Lin, and Jianjun Chen

Plum [ Prunus salicina Lindl. (syn. Prunus triflora Roxb. or Prunus thibetica Franch.)], commonly known as chinese plum or japanese plum, is a diploid (2 n = 2 x = 16) fruit tree native to China. It is one of the most important stone fruit

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Qijing Zhang and Dajun Gu

resistant to rain cracking and ripening synchronously ( Zhang et al., 2008 ). Small fruit size (0.4–2.85 g) has been one of the major factors limiting its development. Prunus salicina is one of the important commercial stone fruits both in China and

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Peter C. Andersen, Brent V. Brodbeck, and Russell F. Mizell 111

The effects and interactions of water stress and nutrient solution on water relations and concentrations of amino acids, organic acids and sugars in xylem fluid of `Methley' plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) and `Carolina Beauty' crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.) during midday were determined. Container-grown plants were irrigated with water or nutrient solution (i.e., osmolarity = 138 mm) for 15 days, then irrigation was either continued or terminated for the next 5 days. The experiments were analyzed as factorial designs for each species separately, with the nutrient solution and irrigation status the last 5 days as the main factors. Xylem fluid tension increased ≈ 2- to 3-fold and leaf conductance to water vapor and transpiration were reduced ≈ 10-fold by withholding irrigation for both species; plant water relations of L. indica were also influenced by the nutrient solution. For both species, the osmolarity of xylem fluid was not altered by withholding irrigation. The predominant organic compounds quantified in both species were amides (i.e., glutamine and asparagine), arginine, and citric and malic acids. Sugars represented a small proportion (i.e., generally ≤ 1%) of total osmolarity. Irrigation altered the chemical profile of amino acids and organic acids to a greater degree than the nutrient solution. Water stress induced a 3-fold increase in total organic acids in xylem fluid of both species. The osmolarity and the concentration of most organic compounds in xylem fluid of P. salicina were not significantly affected by the nutrient solution. Arginine increased markedly in concentration by withholding irrigation or with the application of nutrient solution for L. indica. The concentration of most organic compounds did not vary greatly in response to variations in soil water or nutrient status. In conclusion, soil water-or nutrient-mediated changes in plant water relations exceeded changes in xylem fluid chemistry.

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W.R. Okie and D.W. Ramming

The status of plum breeding around the world is reviewed. Two distinct types of plums are grown: Japanese-type shipping plums (mostly diploid hybrids of Prunus salicina Lindl. with other species) such as are grown in California, and hexaploid or “domestica” plums (P. domestica L.), which have a long history in Europe. In recent years there has been a resurgence of plum breeding outside the United States.

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C.H. Crisosto, W.A. Retzlaff, L.E. William, T.M. DeJong, and J.P. Zoffoli

We investigated the effects of three seasonal atmospheric ozone (0,) concentrations on fruit quality, internal breakdown, weight loss, cuticle structure, and ripening characteristics of plum fruit from 3-year-old `Casselman' trees in the 1991 season. Trees were exposed to 12-hour daily mean O3 concentrations of 0.034 [charcoal-filtered air (CFA)], 0.050 [ambient air (AA)], or 0.094 [ambient plus O3 (AA+O)] μl·liter-1 from bloom to leaf-fall (1 Apr. to31 Oct. 1991). Fruit quality and internal breakdown incidence measured at harvest and after 2, 4, and 6 weeks of storage at 0C were not affected by any of the O3 treatments. Following an ethylene (C2H4) preconditioning treatment, the rate of fruit softening, C2H4 production, and CO, evolution was higher for plums harvested from the AA + O than from those grown in CFA. Weight loss of fruit from the AA + O exceeded that of fruit from CFA and AA. Anatomical studies of mature plums indicated differences in wax deposition and cuticle thickness between fruit grown in AA + O, AA, and CFA. Differences in gas permeability, therefore, may explain the difference in the ripening pattern of `Casselman' plum fruit grown in high atmospheric O3 partial pressures.

Open access

P. A. Domoto and A. A. Hewitt

Abstract

The wheat coleoptile straight-growth test was used to determine the effects of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) on endogenous auxins and inhibitors in seeds of ‘Late Santa Rosa’ plum. Seeds of both developing and abscissing ethephon-treated fruits attained higher levels of auxin activity than did their respective controls suggesting an ethylene-induced inhibition of auxin transport. The level of growth inhibitors remained similar throughout.

Open access

Pasquale Rosati, Grazia Marino, and Chiara Swierczewski

Abstract

Tissue cultures of ‘Calita’ Japanese plum started from 5 to 7 mm long shoot tips proliferated at a rate of 10:1 to 20:1 per month when grown on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium with 3% sucrose, 0.75% agar and (in mg/liter) 0.4 thiamine HCl, 100 myo-inositol, 1.0 6-benzylamino purine (BA), 0.1 gibberellic acid (GA3) and 0.1 indolebutyric acid (IBA). Best rooting results were obtained with 2 or 4 mg/liter indolebutyric acid (IBA) at 21°C; raising the temperature to 26° or 30° slowed and decreased rooting unless 0.1 mg/liter GA3 was included in the medium. Activated charcoal in the medium drastically reduced rooting. Rooted cuttings were easily established in soil.