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Hisayo Yamane, Ryutaro Tao, Akira Sugiura, Nathanael R. Hauck, and Amy F. Iezzoni

This report demonstrates the presence of S-ribonucleases (S-RNases), which are associated with gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) in Prunus L., in styles of self-incompatible and self-compatible (SC) selections of tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.). Based on self-pollen tube growth in the styles of 13 sour cherry selections, seven selections were SC, while six selections were SI. In the SI selections, the swelling of pollen tube tips, which is typical of SI pollen tube growth in gametophytic SI, was observed. Stylar extracts of these selections were evaluated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glycoproteins which had molecular weights and isoelectric points similar to those of S-RNases in other Prunus sp. were detected in all selections tested. These proteins had immunological characteristics and N-terminal amino acid sequences consistent with the S-RNases in other Prunus sp. Two cDNAs encoding glycoproteins from `Erdi Botermo' were cloned. One of them had the same nucleotide sequence as that of S4-RNase of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), while the amino acid sequence from the other cDNA encoded a novel S-RNase (named Sa-RNase in this study). This novel RNase contained two active sites of T2/S type RNases and five regions conserved among other Prunus S-RNases. Genomic DNA blot analysis using cDNAs encoding S-RNases of sweet cherry as probes indicated that three or four S-RNase alleles are present in the genome of each selection regardless of SI. All of the selections tested seemed to have at least one S-allele that is also found in sweet cherry. Genetic control of SI/SC in tetraploid sour cherry is discussed based on the results obtained from restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

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Simona Proietti, Stefano Moscatello, Fiorella Villani, Federica Mecucci, Robert P. Walker, Franco Famiani, and Alberto Battistelli

, Ukraine, the United States, and Iran. There are three main cultivars of sour cherry, also known as tart cherry ( Prunus cerasus L.): caproniana or amarella cherry, with light-colored flesh; marasca, with soft red flesh and a slightly tart flavor; and

Open access

Murray E. Hopping and Martin J. Bukovac

Abstract

Endogenous acidic and neutral growth-promoting substances were extracted from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Montmorency) seed and pericarp tissues, separated by ascending paper chromatography and detected by the Avena first internode bioassay. Although correlations were established between the levels of seed auxin and concomitant development of the nucellus and integuments and the development of the endosperm and embryo, no correlation was found between the levels of seed and pericarp auxin or between the level of pericarp auxin and concomitant fruit development.

Open access

Murray E. Hopping, Harry Young, and Martin J. Bukovac

Abstract

Ethanolic extracts of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Montmorency) fruit were partitioned into butanol and water-soluble fractions. Following paper chromatography, each fraction was tested for cytokinin activity by the radish cotyledon and soybean callus bioassays. Activity in both fractions increased between 14 and 21 days after anthesis, and remained high at 28 days, although cell division in the pericarp had ceased. One growth promotor in the butanol fraction resembled zeatin in its chromatographic mobility on both paper and Sephadex LH-20, and was identified as zeatin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of its trimethylated derivative. A water-soluble growth promoter, which exhibited activity in only the radish cotyledon bioassay, was unaffected either by acid or by alkaline phosphatase hydrolysis.

Free access

Desmond R. Layne and J.A. Flore

The source-sink ratio of l-year-old, potted `Montmorency' sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) trees was manipulated by partial defoliation (D) or continuous lighting (CL) to investigate the phenomenon of end-product inhibition of photosynthesis. Within 24 hours of D, net CO2 assimilation rate (A) of the most recently expanded source leaves of D plants was significantly higher than nondefoliated (control) plants throughout the diurnal photoperiod. Between 2 and 7 days after D, A was 30% to 50% higher and stomatal conductance rate (g,) was 50% to 100% higher than in controls. Estimated carboxylation efficiency(k) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration rate increased significantly within 2 days and remained consistently higher for up to 9 days after D. Leaf starch concentration and dark respiration rate decreased but sorbitol and sucrose concentration increased after D. The diurnal decline in A in the afternoon after D may have been due to feedback inhibition from accumulation of soluble carbohydrates (sucrose and sorbitol) in the cytosol. This diurnal decline indicated that trees were sink limited. By 9 days after D, photochemical efficiency was significantly higher than in control plants. In the long term, leaf senescence was delayed as indicated by higher A and gs in combination with higher chlorophyll content up to 32 days after D. CL resulted in a significant reduction of A, gs, k, variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv), photochemical efficiency, and estimated RuBP regeneration rate of the most recently expanded source leaves within 1 day. During the exposure to CL, A was reduced 2- to 3-fold and k was reduced up to 4-fold. The normal linear relationship between A and gs was uncoupled under CL indicating that A was not primarily limited by gs and since internal CO2 concentration was not significantly affected, the physical limitation to A imposed by the stomata was negligible. The decrease in Fv and photochemical efficiency indicated that leaves were photoinhibited within 1 day. The decrease in instantaneous chlorophyll fluorescence after at least 1 day of CL indicated that there was a reversible regulatory mechanism whereby the damage to photosystem II reaction centers was repaired. Leaf chlorophyll content was not altered by 1,2, or 3 days of exposure to CL, indicating that photooxidation of chlorophytl did not occur. The time to full photosynthetic recovery from CL increased as the duration of exposure increased. CL plants that were photoinhibited accumulated significant starch in the chloroplast in a companion study (Layne and Flore, 1993) and it is possible that an orthophosphate limitation in the chloroplast stroma was occurring. D plants that were continuously illuminated were not photosynthetically inhibited. After 7 days of CL, plants that were then partially defoliated yet remained in CL photosynthetically recovered within 5 days to pre-CL values. Under the conditions of this investigation, end-product inhibition of A occurred in young, potted sour cherry trees but the mechanism of action in D plants was different than in CL plants.

Open access

Ronald M. Davison, Ryszard M. Rudnicki, and Martin J. Bukovac

Abstract

Abscisic acid (ABA) was isolated from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Montmorency) fruit and identified by thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Inhibitor levels in the seed paralleled those in the pericarp and were, in general, directly related to growth rate of the fruit, higher levels being found during the initial rapid growth (Stage I) than during the retarded growth phase (Stage II). The level of the inhibitor increased in Stage III, then decreased in the final stages of maturity. The possible role of endogenous ABA in cherry fruit development is discussed.

Open access

Ryszard Rudnicki, R. K. Hammond, and M. J. Bukovac

Abstract

An inhibitor of wheat coleoptile elongation and cress seed germination was isolated from the pericarp of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit and identified as para coumaric acid (PCA). PCA was present in the free acid and bound forms. The concentration of PCA remained relatively constant (10 to 16 μg g dry weight−1) during fruit development. The bound form, with one exception, was present at the highest concentration during Stage II. On a per fruit basis, the free and bound PCA increased progressively with fruit development. PCA was an effective activator of IAA-oxidase also isolated from the cherry fruit pericarp. The possible role of PCA in fruit growth is discussed.

Open access

Murray E. Hopping and Martin J. Bukovac

Abstract

Acidic ethyl ether-soluble growth substances extracted from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Montmorency) seeds were subjected to repeated paper chromatography. A growth promoting substance was isolated, active in both the Avena first internode and Avena curvature bioassays, with chromatographic and chromogenic properties similar to those of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This tentative identification was strengthened by gas-liquid co-chromatography of the trifluoroacetyl derivatives of authentic IAA and the endogenous growth promoter. Conclusive confirmation that the growth promoting substance is IAA was provided by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Open access

R. Naito, H. Inoue, and M. J. Bukovac

Abstract

Levels of gibberellin (GA)-like substances were determined in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) seed in relation to fruit development using the cucumber and dwarf pea bioassays. Two GA-like substances were found; one was soluble in ethyl acetate and the other, a more polar substance, in butanol. Concentrations of both substances increased to a maximum 14 days after anthesis and then decreased and remained low during Stage III. Changes in seed GA-like substances coincided with development of the seed components, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo, and the early enlargement of the pericarp, but not with subsequent development of the pericarp. Both the ethyl acetate- and butanol-soluble GA-like seed substances chromatographed at a lower Rf than GA3. The butanol-soluble component is probably not a glycoside, since no ethyl acetate-soluble GA was released on hydrolysis. The butanol-soluble component resembles GA32 in polarity, partitioning characteristics and Rf.

Free access

Yufei Xu*, Eric Hanson, James Flore, and Wayne Loescher

In Michigan boron (B) deficiencies in sour cherry have resulted in routine use of B sprays to enhance fruit set and increase fruit yield. However, field observations indicate that high B levels are associated with premature softening, making fruit unacceptable for processing. Our fertilization studies show that fruit B levels are higher, but B generally has little or no effect on fruit size, maturity, color, or pull force. However, at some locations, B applications increase the number of soft fruit, especially when harvest is delayed well after the optimum maturity date (as indicated by pull force). B-induced yield increases can be achieved without inducing excessive fruit softening by careful monitoring of fruit maturation and prompt harvest. Leaf and fruit B levels will be presented.