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Inga A. Zasada and Patrick P. Moore

associated with raspberry, Pratylenchus penetrans , the root lesion nematode, is the most economically important ( McElroy, 1991 ). Feeding on roots by Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filipjev and Schuurmans Stekhoven can reduce the capacity of the plant to

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Yunliang Peng, Wanrong Chen, and Maurice Moens

Methods to screen for resistance to root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans in Rosa were modified to screen-rooted materials. Sixty days after rooting, plants were transplanted into 50-mL pots filled with river sand and each inoculated with 500 P. penetrans in 400 μL water 10 days later. The inoculated plants were fertilized weekly and incubated in a growth chamber or a greenhouse for 5 months when nematodes were extracted from the sand and root system and enumerated. When used for screening of the 131 Rosa accessions, this approach allowed the observation of a large variation in host suitability. While a majority of the accessions supported the multiplication of P. penetrans, previously reported resistance of R. multiflora `K1' and R. virginiana to P. penetrans was confirmed. Rosa laevigata anemoides allowed a significantly lower nematode multiplication than the currently prevalent rootstock R. corymbifera `Laxa'.

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Alan W. McKeown, John W. Potter, Mary Gartshore, and Peter Carson

Root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans Cobb) are well-adapted to sandy soils and have a host range including most agronomic, horticultural, and wild species grown in Ontario. As native climax sand-prairie species have coexisted with the nematode for millennia, resistance or tolerance may have developed. We have screened using the Baermann pan technique, soil samples taken from a private collection of sand-prairie species collected from local prairie remnants. Several species [Liatris cylindracea Michx., Monarda punctata L., Pycnanthemum virginianum L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench] proved to be excellent hosts (>500/kg of soil) of root lesion nematode, confirming the presence of this nematode in the soil. Over two seasons, we determined that 10 plant species belonging to the families Asclepiadaceae, Compositae, Graminae, and Leguminosae to support very low numbers of P. penetrans. Brown-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta L.) had no root lesion nematodes throughout both seasons, Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa L.) very low counts, while Switch grass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Indian grass [Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash] had detectable root lesion nematodes on only one sampling date each year. Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman), Little Bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx) Nash], Sand Dropseed [Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray], Side-oats Grama [Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.)) Torr], Broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus L.), Bush clover [Lespedeza capitata (Michx] also are poor hosts. These species have potential as cover or rotation crops useful for nematode management.

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A.W. McKeown, J.W. Potter, M. Gartshore, and P. Carson

Because of the need to find plants that suppress root lesion nematodes for use in rotation or cover-crops, 16 native sand-prairie species were evaluated for host status for 6 years. Plants were grown on a Fox sand soil at a local prairie plant nursery. Soil cores were taken in the spring, summer, and fall and assayed for plant parasitic nematodes. Five species supported very low numbers (less than 100/kg soil) of root lesion nematodes. Brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) had no detectable nematodes for the duration. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans L., Nash) samples produced detectable nematodes on only two sampling dates over the 6 years and were statistically not different from brown-eyed Susan. Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa L.) also had very low detectable nematodes as did sand dropseed [Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray.]. New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus L.), little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash], and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman) were poor hosts with <200 nematodes/kg soil. Mountain mint (Pycnanthemum virginianum L), wild bergamont (Monarda fistulosa L), horsemint (Monarda punctata L), and dwarf blazing star (Liatris cylindracea L) all had root lesion populations over 3000/kg soil. Horsemint and wild bergamont plants died out, possibly as a result of nematode infestation. Root lesion nematodes have an extremely wide host range in current agronomic and horticultural crops, and weeds and are difficult to manage using nonchemical means. Indiangrass, switchgrass, big bluestem, and little bluestem have all been used agriculturally for pastures and consequently have potential as beneficial long-term rotation crops for nematode management and soil building.

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J.L. Townshend

The effects of temperature and root-lesion nematodes [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb)] on the growth of newly germinated `Bartlett' pear seedlings (Pyrus communis L.) were examined. At five temperatures from 10 to 30C, P. penetrans (five per gram of soil) did not purple the leaves. After 8 weeks, leaf number, trunk height, and top and root weights were reduced only at 25C. The number of P. penetrans in the roots were greatest at 15 and 20C. At 20C, P. penetrans (16 per gram of soil) caused the leaves of seedlings to turn purple, and, by 6 weeks after treatment, the nematodes had reduced leaf production, trunk elongation, and top and root growth.

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T.C. Vrain, Hugh A. Daubeny, J.W. Hall, R.M. DeYoung, and A.K. Anderson

The inheritance of resistance to the root lesion nematode [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filip. and Stek.] in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) was studied in a four-member half diallel, involving two resistant genotypes and two susceptible genotypes. Estimates of general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA, respectively) were determined for nematode densities in roots alone and soil alone, nematode densities per plant, and plant root and foliage biomass. GCA were significant for nematodes in soil and for root and foliage biomass; SCA were significant for nematodes in the soil and for root biomass. Neither GCA nor SCA was significant for number of nematodes in the roots or per plant.

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John W. Potter and Adam Dale

Intraspecific crossing of `Guardian' and `Midway' cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) produced a family of genotypes, some of which suppressed root-lesion nematode [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb)] population counts and produced large berries and high yield. Unlike `Midway', `Guardian' also suppressed P. penetrans. Among several beach strawberry [Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch.] and woodland strawberry (Fragaria virginiana Duch.) genotypes, variation was found in resistance and tolerance to root-lesion nematodes. Three F. chiloensis genotypes showed tolerance, and at least two genotypes may be somewhat resistant. Three F. virginiana genotypes also were tolerant, and three were resistant. Also, one (`Little Cataraqui 4') combined root growth vigor with nematode resistance. We concluded that exploitable genetic diversity in vigor and reaction to root-lesion nematodes exists in wild Fragaria and in F. ×ananassa.

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Todd L. Mervosh and James A. LaMondia

The effects of terbacil herbicide on strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. `Honeoye') yield and black root rot disease were determined in field plots at two locations in Connecticut over 4 years. Terbacil treatments at up to four times the maximum label dosage caused some temporary foliar chlorosis but did not affect the health of structural or perennial roots and associated feeder roots. Development of secondary root growth (perennial roots) was not influenced by terbacil. Terbacil had no effect on the quantity of lesion nematodes [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filip & Schur. Stek.] extracted or the amount of the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia fragariae Husain and McKeen isolated from strawberry roots. At both locations, R. fragariae was common on plant roots by the fourth year. Terbacil treatments did not affect strawberry yields in terms of number or weight of ripe berries per plot. Our results indicate that terbacil does not contribute to black root rot or decreased yields in `Honeoye' strawberry. Chemical name used: 5-chloro-3-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6-methyl-2,4-(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione (terbacil).

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James A. LaMondia, Richard S. Cowles, and Lorraine Los

Surveys mailed to strawberry growers in 1999 determined the state of nematode and root weevil awareness and practices for their management. Based on the survey response, 41 fields representative of various practices were selected for sampling throughout Connecticut. Adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) were found in only 3 fields, but notched leaves characteristic of their feeding were found in 40 fields, indicating a greater prevalence than perceived by growers. The percentage of notched leaves was positively correlated with years in production, suggesting that it took some time for the flightless weevils to migrate into and to increase to damaging numbers in fields. In fields older than 2 years, bifenthrin insecticide reduced leaf feeding compared to untreated fields or to fields treated with endosulfan or azinphos-methyl. Lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans) were detected in 31 fields and were present in about 58% of plants. When present, nematode numbers were greater in the margins of poor areas than in adjacent healthy plants (735 vs. 428 per g root, respectively). Lesion nematode numbers were also greater in replanted strawberries than rotated fields (760 vs. 304, respectively). Soil fumigation with methyl bromide, but not methyl dithiocarbamate or the combination of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin, reduced nematode densities in the following strawberry crop. Based on an economic model, nematodes reduced accumulated profit over 4 fruiting years by more than the percent loss of fruit yield. Beneficial insect pathogenic nematodes, predominantly Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema feltiae, were found in 75% of fields to which commercially obtained nematodes had been applied, and to 14% of the remaining fields. Presence of naturally occurring insect pathogenic nematodes in strawberry fields may control root weevil populations and lead to more years of productivity.

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Chrislyn A. Particka and James F. Hancock

Black root rot (BRR) is a widespread disease of strawberry (Fragari×ananassa Duchnesne) that causes the death of feeder roots and the degradation of structural roots. The major causal organisms of BRR include Rhizoctonia fragariae Husain and W.E. McKeen, Pythium Pringsh., and Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filipjev and Schuurmans Stekhoven. The current method of control for black root rot is methyl-bromide fumigation; however, methyl bromide is scheduled to be phased out in 2005, and its effects are short-lived in matted-row systems. The objectives of the study were to measure levels of tolerance to BRR in 20 strawberry genotypes and to determine which pathogens were present in the soil. The genotypes were planted in four blocks each of methyl-bromide fumigated and nonfumigated soil, and were evaluated for crown number, number of flowers per crown, yield, and average berry weight over 2 years. The results showed that all three pathogens were present in the field, and that there was a significant genotype × fumigation interaction for yield and crown number in both years. The cultivars Bounty, Cabot, and Cavendish, all released from the breeding program in Nova Scotia, displayed tolerance to the pathogens that cause BRR.