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Qi Chai, Xinqing Shao, and Jianquan Zhang

-adapted tobacco callus J. Heilongjiang August Firet Land Reclamation University. 9 7 9 Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Li, M. Du, X. 2004 The study of complex alkali–saline stress on four varieties of Poa pratensis Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin. 20 209 213

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Josh A. Honig, Stacy A. Bonos, and William A. Meyer

The bluegrasses, also commonly referred to as meadowgrasses, are one the most economically important genera of the Poaceae ( Huff, 2010 ; Soreng and Barrie, 1999 ). Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis L.) is the botanical-type species for the

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Robert R. Shortell, Stephen E. Hart, and Stacy A. Bonos

Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis L.) is a popular turfgrass species throughout its adaptive range. It typically produces a dense stand of turf with dark green color, high overall turf quality, and a wide range of disease tolerance. This makes

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Robert R. Shortell, William A. Meyer, and Stacy A. Bonos

Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis L.) is a perennial turfgrass species that is widely adapted to many distinct environments. The extensive rhizome system of Kentucky bluegrass gives it the ability to tolerate and recover from many environmental

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Josh A. Honig, Vincenzo Averello, Stacy A. Bonos, and William A. Meyer

Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis L.) is a facultative apomictic cool-season perennial grass species widely used for forage and turf in the United States and Canada ( Huff, 2003 , 2010 ). Although sexuality in kentucky bluegrass can be variable

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Joel G. Reiten, Chiwon W. Lee, Z.M. Cheng, and Ronald C. Smith

Seeds of a Kentucky bluegrass cultivar (Poa pratensis 'SD Common') and two native buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) strains, Texas (TX) selection and North Dakota (ND) selection, were tested for their germination tolerance to increasing levels of NaCl at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, 2.4, 2.8, 3.2% in solution. Both the TX and ND strains of buffalograss exhibited a high degree of salt tolerance with the upper limit of seed germination at 2.8% NaCl (2% to 7% germination after 6 days). At high NaCl concentrations, however, percent seed germination was much greater in the ND strain than the TX strain of buffalograss. For instance, seed germination at 0.8% NaCl was 90% in ND strain and 53% in TX strain as compared to the control. Kentucky bluegrass was least tolerant to NaCl with the upper limit of seed germination at 0.4% NaCl (14.7% germination in 6 days). Seed germination in Kentucky bluegrass was completely inhibited at 0.6% NaCl.

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J.L. Nus, N.E. Christians, and K.L. Diesburg

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of high P applications on `Baron', Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) turf quality, chlorophyll content, soil test levels of P and K, and foliar nutrient concentration. In this 5-year field study, P was applied at 0, 22, 43, 86, 172, or 258 kg·ha-1·year-1 using triple superphosphate (210 g P/kg) in single-applications in May. Phosphorus applications did not affect overall yearly quality, chlorophyll content, or soil pH, but increased available soil P and reduced available soil K and Cu concentration in clippings.

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J.M. Goatley Jr., A.J. Powell Jr., M. Barrett, and W.W. Witt

Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the basis for chlorsulfuron selectivity between Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. cv. Kenblue) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Rebel). Tall fescue absorbed and translocated more foliar-applied [14C]-labeled chlorsulfuron from the treated leaf than Kentucky bluegrass. The two species absorbed similar amounts of chlorsulfuron from nutrient solution into the roots, but tall fescue translocated more of the absorbed radioactivity to the shoots. Tall fescue metabolized chlorsulfuron in the shoots slightly more slowly than Kentucky bluegrass. Allof these factors apparently contributed to the higher tolerance of Kentucky bluegrass than of tall fescue to chlorsulfuron. Chemical name used: (2-chloro-N-[[4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5 -triazin-2-yl)amino]-carbonyl] benzenesulfonamide) (chlorsulfuron).

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E.H. Ervin and A.J. Koski

The effects of trinexapac-ethyl (TE) on the anatomical and biochemical composition of turfgrasses and their implications for its field use are poorly understood. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine if application of TE increased Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) leaf blade cell density, chlorophyll concentration, or structural carbohydrate content. Kentucky bluegrass (KB) sod was harvested from the field, established in greenhouse pots, and sprayed with 0.27 kg·ha-1 a.i. TE. Leaf blade samples were collected 4 weeks after treatment (WAT), fixed in glutaraldehyde, and embedded in Spurr resin. Photomicrographs of longitudinal leaf blade sections were used to determine cell density, cell length, and cell width. Chlorophyll and structural carbohydrate contents were determined at 2 and 4 WAT. Treatment with TE increased cell density and chlorophyll-b concentration, while reducing cell length, but structural carbohydrate content was unaffected. Chemical name used: 4-cyclopropyl-α-hydroxy-methylene-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl).

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R.J. Cooper, P.C. Bhowmik, and L.A. Spokas

Field experiments were conducted to determine the response of five widely used Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars (Adelphi, Baron, Bensun, Merion, and Touchdown) to preemergence applications of the herbicide pendimethalin. Pendimethalin applied during 2 years at 1.7 or 3.4 kg·ha-1 (a.i.) controlled smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. ex Schweig.) Schreb. ex Muhl.] effectively without injury to turf. Pendimethalin at 3.4 kg·ha-1 resulted in a short-term suppression of root growth immediately following application in the first year of the study. The reduction was transitory and subsequent rooting and rhizome growth were unaffected by pendimethalin. Cultivar × pendimethalin level interactions were not significant during the study. Thus, the herbicide appears to be a safe, effective preemergence material for crabgrass control in Kentucky bluegrass turf. Chemical name used: N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).