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Trent Y. Hata, Arnold H. Hara, Mike A. Nagao, and Benjamin K.S. Hu

Frangipani (Plumeria hybrid `Donald Angus') cuttings immersed in hot water (49C for 10 min) followed by 0.8% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) basal treatment (hot water + IBA) had greater root length and weight compared to the nontreated control, hot water, or IBA treatment alone. Greater percentage of rooting and number of roots per cutting were observed for hot-water-treated + IBA-treated cuttings compared to the non-treated control and hot-water treatment alone. In a second study, Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker-Gawl. `Massangeana', D. deremensis Engl. `Warneckii', D. deremensis Engl. `Janet Craig', D. marginata Lam., and cape jasmine (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) cuttings displayed results similar to those observed with Plumeria cuttings. In addition to enhancing rooting, hot water + IBA also stimulated the number of shoots per cutting on anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Andre `Marian Seefurth'), croton [Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume var. pictum (Lodd.) Mull. Arg.], D. marginata, D. fragrans, Plumeria, and ti (Cordyline terminalis `Ti') cuttings.

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Kauahi Perez

modifications of sucrose and pH concentrations ( Table 1 ). Factorial combinations of three sucrose concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) and three levels of pH (5.0, 5.5, and 6.0) were prepared. Pollen grains from two plumeria cultivars, Keane and Tillie Hughes

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Alan W. Meerow, Richard Criley, and Raymond J. Schnell

Plumeria is a small genus of succulent trees and shrubs in the Apocynaceae native to tropical America. It is favored as a landscape ornamental in tropical and tropical regions due to its tolerance of hot, dry conditions, ease of propagation, and long season of bloom. Flowers of certain varieties are important components of leis in Hawaii. Numerous cultivars have been developed, chiefly from either seedling selections of P. rubra, a Mexican species, and P. obtusa, broadly distributed in the Caribbean basin, or hybrids between these species and among older cultivars. Little is known of the breeding behavior of the species in nature or cultivations, but very few of the cultivars set an abundant number of fruits. We used 21 microsatellite DNA (SSR) loci developed in our lab from Plumeria rubra to investigate the genetic relationships of 83 cultivars of Plumeria from a germplasm collection at the University of Hawaii, now duplicated in Miami. All 21 loci were highly polymorphic, with three to 15 alleles observed across the cultivar population. Six of the 21 loci exhibit heterozygote excess across the cultivars; the majority of the remaining 15 have an excess of homozygotes, suggesting that the cultivars are largely inbred. Clustering with Bayesian analysis suggests that there are five main groups represented among the cultivars, with varying degrees of admixture among the five. The data also suggest that identical genotypes have received different cultivar names at times. We are also analyzing seedling populations from fruits spontaneously set on several cultivars to determine if they are predominantly the result of self-pollination or out-crossing.

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James McConnell, Louise Q. Naholowaa, and Mari Marutani

A survey was conducted in Guam to determine the preferred uses and preferred flowers and foliage for leis and mwarmwars. Mwarmwars are a form of lei that is worn on the head. Mwarmwars were introduce to Guam by Carolinians. Lei giving is popular for special occasions to signify honored guests, as a token to loved ones, or given to travelers. In Guam, it is popular to give mwarmwars and leis as gifts to middle school, high school and college students. Preferred characteristics of flowers and foliage are wilt resistance and those that are not fragile. The most popular flowers are orchids, plumeria, mini carnations, baby's breath, bougainvillea, alstromeria, crown flowers, mini daisies, red ginger, spray roses, and sweetheart roses. The most popular foliage are leather leaf fern, polyscias, ti leaf, asparagus fern, and lemon leaves. The majority of the flowers and foliage are imported.

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Kaitlyn McBride, Richard J. Henny, Jianjun Chen, and Terri A. Mellich

nutritional studies on other herbaceous genera within the family Apocynaceae has been published. Plumeria rubra grown in pure silica sand in 4-L containers were treated with a low and high nutrient level (2.4 g and 24.0 g, respectively, of 14N–14P–14K of

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Kaitlyn M. McBride, Richard J. Henny, Terri A. Mellich, and Jianjun Chen

the family Apocynaceae such as Plumeria rubra L. ( Huante et al., 1995 ), Mandevilla Lindl. ( Deneke et al., 1992 ), and Dipladenia sanderi (Hemsl.) Woodson ( Plaza et al., 2009 ) as well as A. obesum ( Dimmitt, 1998 ; McBride et al., 2014