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Sudeep Vyapari, Edmund L. Thralls, and Michele S. Scheiber

A study was conducted to evaluate establishment of root-bound vs. nonroot-bound container-grown Plumbago auriculata Lam. in a landscape. A total of 144 plants were transplanted from #1 containers in a rain-out shelter at Mid-Florida Research and Education Center, Apopka, Fla., in June 2004. The field soil type was amended with composted yard waste. The three treatment types used for the study were: 1) root-bound plants; 2) root-bound plants with a vertical slice made through the root ball at a 90° angle; and 3) nonroot-bound plants. To evaluate the effect of these three treatments during the course of establishment period, harvesting was done once every 2 weeks. Data on growth indices (height × width × width), shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and length of the longest root were recorded. The experimental design was a completely randomized design consisting of three treatments, 12 harvest dates (days after planting), and four replicates per harvest date. Plants were maintained according to the best management practices recommended by the UF/IFAS, and were irrigated once a day using microirrigation. Experimental data were analyzed for significance of correlation among variables using SAS version 9.1. Results of the correlation and regression analysis indicated that the increase in the shoot dry weights (g), root dry weights (g), growth indices (m3), and root: shoot ratio had significant relationship with the harvest dates. Correlation among harvest dates and shoot dry weight, root dry weight, or growth indices was found to be positive. However, results of the study indicated that as the number of days after planting increased, the root to shoot ratio decreased.

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Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez, and Yin-Tung Wang

The effect of drought on the growth and gas exchange of six bedding plant species—agastache [Agastache urticifolia (Benth.) O. Kuntze `Honeybee Blue'], dusty miller (Cineraria maritima L. `Silverdusty'), petunia (Petunia ×hybrida `Wave Purple'), plumbago (Plumbago auriculata Lam. `Escapade'), ornamental pepper (Capsicum annuum L. `Black Pearl'), and vinca [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don `Titan']—was quantified under greenhouse conditions. Seeds were sown in January and seedlings were grown in the greenhouse until 18 Apr., when two irrigation treatments—drought (D, ≈18% volumetric moisture content at reirrigation) and control (C, ≈25% volumetric moisture content at reirrigation)—were initiated. Leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) were determined in response to a range of substrate moisture content (from ≈5% to 30% by volume) and temperature (from 20 °C to 40 °C). Dry weight of agastache, ornamental pepper, and vinca was unaffected by drought, whereas that of other species was reduced. Leaf area of plumbago and height of plumbago and vinca were reduced by drought. As substrate moisture content decreased from 25% to 10%, Pn, E, and gs decreased linearly in all species except petunia and plumbago. Leaf net photosynthetic rate of all species declined as leaf temperature increased from 20 °C to 40 °C. In contrast, E of all species, except petunia, increased as temperature increased. Transpiration rate of petunia increased as temperature increased from 20 °C to 30 °C, and then decreased between 30 °C and 40 °C. Although petunia had the highest Pn among the tested species, its Pn and gs declined more rapidly compared with the other species as temperature increased from 20 °C to 40 °C or as substrate moisture content decreased, indicating that petunia was most sensitive to high temperature and drought.

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Timothy K. Broschat and Kimberly K. Moore

In two experiments, chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), bamboo palm (Chamaedorea seifrizii), areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), fishtail palm (Caryota mitis), macarthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), shooting star (Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum), downy jasmine (Jasminum multiflorum), plumbago (Plumbago auriculata), alexandra palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae), and foxtail palm (Wodyetia bifurcata) were transplanted into 6.2-L (2-gal) containers. They were fertilized with Osmocote Plus 15N-3.9P-10K (12-to14-month formulation) (Expt. 1) or Nutricote Total 18N-2.6P-6.7K (type 360) (Expt. 2) applied by either top dressing, substrate incorporation, or layering the fertilizer just below the transplanted root ball. Shoot dry weight, plant color, root dry weights in the upper and lower halves of the root ball, and weed shoot dry weight were determined when each species reached marketable size. Optimal fertilizer placement method varied among the species tested. With the exception of areca palm, none of the species tested grew best with incorporated fertilizer. Root dry weights in the lower half of the root ball for chinese hibiscus, bamboo palm, and downy jasmine were greatest when the fertilizer was layered and root dry weights in the upper half of the root ball were greatest for top-dressed chinese hibiscus. Weed growth was lower in pots receiving layered fertilizer for four of the six palm species tested.

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Amy Barker, Ingram McCall, and Brian E. Whipker

containing flurprimidol suppress height of ‘Nellie White’ easter lilies HortTechnology 22 164 168 de Ruijter, A. 2008 Plumbago auriculata Lam, p. 472–473. In: G.H. Schmelzer and A. Gurib-Fakim (eds.). Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/plantes medicinales 1. [CD

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Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez, and Terri Starman

’, ornamental pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) ‘Black Pearl’, and plumbago ( Plumbago auriculata ) irrigated with water at electrical conductivity (EC) of 0.8, 2.8, 4.0, 5.1, or 7.4 dS·m −1 (Expt. 2). Vertical bars represent se s. L and Q in legend parentheses

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Sudeep Vyapari, S.M. Scheiber, and E.L. Thralls

Three root ball conditions—nonroot-bound (NRB), root-bound (RB), and root-bound sliced (RBS)—were evaluated for their effect on plant growth of plumbago (Plumbago auriculata) during establishment and postestablishment in the landscape. At transplant, NRB plants were smaller than other treatments. Canopy size, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, and total biomass growth rates were faster for NRB plants compared with RB or RBS. By 6 and 8 weeks after transplanting, respectively, biomass and canopy size were similar among treatments. Rootbound and RBS plants were similar indicating root ball slicing does not affect growth in the landscape.

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John M. Ruter

A study was conducted with Coreopsis verticillata L. `Moonbeam' and Plumbago auriculata Lam. to evaluate the growth of these perennial plants in 2.6-liter (#1) black plastic containers (BPCs) compared to plants grown in fiber containers with Cu(OH)2 (FCs+) impregnated into the container walls. Coreopsis root and shoot dry weight was unaffected by container type, whereas Plumbago root and shoot dry weight was greater (2.2× and 1.6×, respectively) for plants grown in FCs+ compared to BPCs. The root : shoot ratio of Plumbago increased 30% when plants were grown in FCs+ compared to BPCs. Root circling was effectively controlled for both species grown in the FCs+. FCs remained in salable condition for the duration of the study. In contrast to untreated FCs, FCs+ will have to be removed at transplanting to allow for normal root development.

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Michael Arnold and Garry McDonald

Multiple experiments conducted over the past 5 years suggest that greenhouse-grown bedding plants, particularly fall-propagated cool-season annuals, may exhibit reductions in vegetative growth and flowering in response to plant growth regulators (PGRs) applied at rates commonly used by growers. Studies using Viola ×wittrockiana Gams as a model system indicated that paclobutrazol applied at production stages and rates reportedly used by growers could result in significant postharvest residual responses that adversely impacted landscape performance. Most of these rates were also included within the recommended ranges on the agricultural chemical labels. Multiple applications to the same plants during production increased the severity of the residual responses and decreased the rates at which residual responses were detectable in landscape plantings. Tests with additional taxa, Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC, Calendula officinalis L., Ipomoea carnea Jacq. subsp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) D. Austin, Lantana urticoides Hayek `L.S. Red', Lupinus texensis Hook., Plumbago auriculata Lam., Salvia greggii Gray, and Verbena canadensis Kunth `Homestead Purple', PGR formulations and at various times of the year indicate that the postharvest landscape responses to PGRs vary among taxa and seasons. These results strongly suggest that in order for researchers to make responsible recommendations on PGR use, studies must include not only greenhouse or nursery production data, but also subsequent testing for residual responses to the PGRs in landscape settings.

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Kimberly Moore, Charles Wajsbrot, Cristina Burgart, and Luci Fisher

Because salts in irrigation water decrease plant growth, we wanted to develop a quick and easy method for evaluating salt tolerance that could be used in the greenhouse. Using plastic containers with lids, sea salt, and rooted cuttings, we monitored changes in plant quality, growth, and leaf water potential as electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium (Na) levels increased. In the first of two experiments, we compared sea hibiscus (Hibiscus tilliaceus) leaf water potential and plant quality in solutions with an EC of 0, 2.1, 4.2, 6.1, or 8.2 dS·m−1 (0, 240, 420, 610, or 1010 mg·L−1 Na). After 14 days, sea hibiscus quality in solutions with an EC of 6.1 or 8.2 dS·m−1 was less than plants in solutions of 0, 2.1, or 4.2 dS·m−1. There was no difference in quality among plants in 0, 2.1, or 4.2 dS·m−1 solutions. To test this method, in Expt. 2, we compared coleus (Coleus ×hybridus), copperleaf (Acalypha wilkesiana), ficus (Ficus benjamina), jasmine (Jasminium multiflorum), and plumbago (Plumbago auriculata) plant quality and growth in solutions with an EC of 0, 1.3, 2.1, 4.2, 5.6, or 6.1 dS·m−1 (0, 170, 240, 420, 520, or 610 mg·L−1 Na). Coleus quality declined at an EC greater than 1.3 dS·m−1, whereas jasmine and plumbago quality declined at an EC greater than 2.1 dS·m−1 Copperleaf and ficus declined at an EC greater than 4.2 dS·m−1. Plant response did vary with low to medium salt-tolerant plants tolerating at an EC up to 1.3 and 170 mg·L−1 Na, whereas plants with a greater salt tolerance tolerated at EC and Na values up to 4.2 dS·m−1 and 420 mg·m−1 Na, respectively. The use of this method benefits growers by determining upper EC and Na limits when faced with poor-quality water resulting from saltwater intrusion or when using reclaimed wastewater with greater EC and Na levels.

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Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, and Christina Perez

, Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Service listed 16 perennial plants as Texas Superstar ® plants . Among them, Lantana ×hybrida ‘New Gold’ (‘New Gold’ lantana), Lantana montevidensis (purple lantana) and Plumbago auriculata (plumbago) are