Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 110 items for :

  • " Pinus taeda " x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

Sven E. Svenson and F. T. Davies Jr.

Pinus taeda L. seedlings inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus, Pisolithus tinctorius, were grown in a glasshouse for eight months, and then subjected to rapidly developing cyclic water deficits, or to a single slowly developing water deficit. Water deficits developed at a rate of -0.16 MPa per day (predawn total water potential) for five cyclic water deficits, and at -0.04 MPa per day for the slow water deficit. In unstressed seedlings, carbon exchange rates (CER) did not differ between noninoculated and inoculated seedlings. During slow water deficit development, CER steadily declined. During rapid water deficit development, CER remained unchanged, then declined rapidly when water potentials fell below -1.3 MPa. Inoculated seedlings had higher CER when water potential was lower than -1.5 MPa.

Free access

Sven E. Svenson and F. T. Davies Jr.

Pinus taeda L. seedlings inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus, Pisolithus tinctorius, were grown in a glasshouse for eight months, and then subjected to rapidly developing cyclic water deficits, or to a single slowly developing water deficit. Water deficits developed at a rate of -0.16 MPa per day (predawn total water potential) for five cyclic water deficits, and at -0.04 MPa per day for the slow water deficit. In unstressed seedlings, carbon exchange rates (CER) did not differ between noninoculated and inoculated seedlings. During slow water deficit development, CER steadily declined. During rapid water deficit development, CER remained unchanged, then declined rapidly when water potentials fell below -1.3 MPa. Inoculated seedlings had higher CER when water potential was lower than -1.5 MPa.

Free access

Wei Qiang Yang, Amy K. Dunbar, and Mary A. Topa

Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is the most widely planted tree species in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. To maximize its aboveground yield, it is vital to understand how root production, particularly fine root production, affects root carbon allocation to its root systems under various environmental conditions. Over a 2-year period (1998-99), we conducted a field study using minirhizotron technology to investigate fine root production and turn over in four families of a 6-year-old loblolly pine stand in Scotland County, N.C. A total of 144 minirhizotron tubes were installed to examine potential genetic differences in fertilizer effects on fine root turnover. Data analyses indicated an interaction between these families and fertilizer treatments for total fine root length and total fine root number. The effect of treatment on total root length was less clear in the faster-growing families. However, fertilization increased total root length in a slow-growing family but decreased total root length in a faster-growing family. Total root number was decreased by fertilizer treatment in the two fastest-growing families, but increased in the two slowest-growing families. Because ectomycorrhizae are significant carbon sinks in pine root systems and more than 90% of short roots in these loblolly pine families were colonized, ectomycorrhizal short roots (clusters) were classified into nine different morphotypes. No treatment and family interactions were found. Fertilizer treatment decreased the number of mycorrhizal clusters per unit root length. Dark and brown morphotypes were dominant mycorrhizal morphotypes among all the families. Our results suggest possible genetic differences and treatment effects on root system carbon demands of loblolly pine.

Free access

Farrell C. Wise, Laura L. Greenwood, and D. Bradley Rowe

Clonal propagation of recalcitrant conifers like loblolly pine depends on producing juvenile cuttings on hedges sheared several times annually. Although dormant cuttings root well, it will be economically important to also root softwood shoots produced between shearings. Several variables were therefore evaluated in a factorial experiment to enhance rooting and handling of summer cuttings. Rooting percentages were equivalent for 3 media after a 5-week hardening period (56% overall), but open flats of 1 perlite:1 vermiculite induced larger root systems at the end of rooting and hardening phases. Extending the rooting period from 10 to 14 weeks increased rooting from about 45% to 58% by the end of hardening. Primary root length per cutting increased 12-63% during hardening, depending on medium. After transplanting, overwintering survival was 98%. Foam rooting wedges produced smallest root systems, and resulting plants were consistently shortest through the following growing season. Weekly applications of soluble fertilizer during the last 6 weeks of rooting did not improve rooting or subsequent growth

Free access

Sven E. Svenson, Fred T. Davies Jr., and Calvin E. Meier

The influence of ectomycorrhizae on drought acclimation was studied in an open-pollinated family of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Seedlings inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker and Couch (Pt) maintained a higher shoot relative growth rate under high and low soil moisture regimes. However, fascicle area, shoot and root mass, and fascicle nutrient elemental content were similar for seedlings inoculated with Pt and noninoculated seedlings. Seedlings under low soil moisture were drought-acclimated by five 11-day drought cycles. During peak water deficit (cycle 6), drought-acclimated, Pt-inoculated seedlings had the lowest predawn fascicle water potential (ψ pd), conserved water with lowest bulk fascicle diffusive conductance (g), and maintained low g and transpiration (E) during recovery (cycle 6). Enhanced drought acclimation of Pt-inoculated seedlings was independent of plant size and fascicle nutrient content.

Free access

Anthony V. LeBude, Barry Goldfarb, Frank A. Blazich, John Frampton, and Farrell C. Wise

Two experiments were conducted during which juvenile hardwood or softwood stem cuttings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were rooted under six mist regimes in a polyethylene-covered greenhouse to investigate the effect of mist level on vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and cutting water potential (Ψcut), and to determine the relationships between these variables and rooting percentage. In addition, net photosynthesis at ambient conditions (Aambient) and stomatal conductance (gs) were measured in stem cuttings during adventitious root formation to determine their relationship to rooting percentage. Hardwood stem cuttings rooted ≥80% when mean daily VPD between 1000 and 1800 hr ranged from 0.60 to 0.85 kPa. Although rooting percentage was related to Ψcut, and Aambient was related to Ψcut, rooting percentage of softwood stem cuttings was not related to Aambient of stem cuttings. Using VPD as a control mechanism for mist application during adventitious rooting of stem cuttings of loblolly pine might increase rooting percentages across a variety of rooting environments.

Free access

Jules Janick, Christiane Cabral Velho, and Anna Whipkey

Mature seed weight of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) averaged 25 mg (dry weight), of which 55.0% was seedcoat, 38.5% megagametophyte, and 6.4% embryo. Fatty acid (FA) content (dry-weight basis) was 17.5% for whole seed, 0.4% for seedcoat, 36.2% for megagametophyte, and 51.2% for embryo. Distribution of FAs (16:0; 18:0; 18:1; 18:2; 18:3 Δ5,9,12; 18:3 Δ9,12,15; 20:0; and 20:3) differed in seedcoat, megagametophyte, and embryo, but 18:2 was the predominant FA in all tissues. Seed development was analyzed for 110 days from 25 July, the year following pollination. Embryos could be macroscopically observed on or about day 30. Embryo dry weight, length, and FA accumulation increased until about day 50 and then remained constant. Embryo density decreased from day 30 to 50 and then stabilized at ≈1.0366 g·ml-1 or 10% sucrose equivalent. Excised zygotic embryos did not germinate in vitro until after day 51; germination increased linearly after this date, reaching 80% by day 72.

Free access

D. Bradley Rowe, Frank A. Blazich, and Robert J. Weir

Hedged stock plants of four full-sib families [27-2 × 27-5, 27-3 × 27-1, 27-2 × 27-1, and 27-6 × 27-1 (designated B, G, R, and W)] of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were fertilized daily with a complete nutrient solution containing N at 10, 25, 40, 55, or 70 mg·L–1. In May, terminal softwood stem cuttings were taken and placed under intermittent mist. Families were combined to form composite poor-rooting (BR) and good-rooting (GW) families. At 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks after sticking, cuttings were evaluated for rooting and analyzed for mineral nutrient and carbohydrate content. Percent rooting by week 12 for cuttings from stock plants receiving N between 25 to 70 mg·L–1 was 28% to 33%, whereas significantly fewer (17%) cuttings from plants receiving 10 mg·L–1 had rooted. By week 12, 98% of cuttings taken from stock plants receiving N at 10 mg·L–1 were alive, while significantly fewer (81% and 82%) of the more succulent cuttings receiving 55 and 70 mg·L–1, respectively, had survived. Nearly all increases in cutting height occurred within the first 3 weeks. In contrast, top dry weight increased steadily throughout the experiment. There were no significant differences in rooting between the two composite families until week 12, when 32% of cuttings from family GW had rooted compared with 24% for family BR. Survival of cuttings was greater for the poor-rooting family (BR) (94%) than for the good-rooting family (GW) (82%) after 12 weeks. Levels of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) and individual soluble sugars were initially higher in cuttings taken from stock plants that received higher rates of N, whereas the reverse was true for starch content. With the exception of sucrose, content of TNC and soluble carbohydrates generally increased over time. Starch was nearly depleted by week 3, but had increased by weeks 6 and 9. No correlation was found between TNC: N ratios and rooting percentage. Family GW contained greater quantities of myo-inositol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, total soluble carbohydrates (TSC), and TNC than did family BR. Mineral nutrient content was generally greater in cuttings taken from stock plants that received higher rates of N; these cuttings also maintained higher levels throughout the 12-week rooting period. As with the soluble carbohydrates, the good-rooting composite family (GW) contained greater amounts of all mineral nutrients than did the poor-rooting family BR.

Free access

Manuela Baietto and A. Dan Wilson

reported mean weight losses for birch ( Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) artificially inoculated with 79 wood decay fungi. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of comprehensive studies on the relative decay potential of