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Richard L. Hassell and Dale W. Kretchman

Seed from six species of the Apiaceae and six parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) cultivars with three seed lots of each parsley cultivar were tested for the presence of germination inhibiting substances. Aqueous leachate from seed of all six species inhibited germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Leachate from root parsley seeds (P. crispum tuberosum) were least inhibitory, while leachate from celery and celeriac (both Apium graveolens L.) seeds were most inhibitory. Inhibitory concentrations in leachate varied by seed lot within a cultivar. Aqueous leachate of seeds from the primary umbels caused less inhibition of germination than did leachate from tertiary umbels. Washing parsley seeds in aerated water for 3 hours or more removed some of the germination inhibitory substance as indicated by the germination bioassay. An aqueous extract prepared from seedcoat tissue, removed during mechanical scarification, inhibited radish seed germination; inhibition was proportional to the duration of scarification and the amount of seedcoat tissue extracted. Parsley seeds scarified ≤60 minutes germinated at rates comparable to washed seeds, but longer scarification time reduced germination. Washing seeds of Apiaceae prior to commercial drying and cleaning may be a practical solution for removal of inhibitors.

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Wallace G. Pill and Elizabeth A. Kilian

`Moss Curled' seeds of parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) were primed osmotically in polyethylene glycol or matrically in fine, exfoliated vermiculite at –0.5 MPa for 4 or 7 days at 20 or 30 °C with 0 or 1 mm GA3. All priming treatments stimulated and hastened germination. Matric priming resulted in greater germination (89%) than osmotic priming (83%) when seeds were primed for 7 days at 30 °C, but priming agent had no effect on germination percentage following priming at 20 °C or for 4 days. In seeds primed for 4 days at 20 or 30 °C, matric priming hastened germination more than did osmotic priming. Germination was generally less synchronous with matric than with osmotic priming. Increasing priming time from 4 to 7 days increased the rate of germination, but increased germination synchrony only when seeds were primed at 20 °C. Inclusion of 1 mm GA3 during priming had little or no effect on germination. All matric priming treatments (other than 4-day priming) were repeated to assess seedling emergence in a greenhouse (25°C day/22 °C night). Priming increased the percentage, rate and synchrony of emergence, and increased hypocotyl length at 3 weeks after planting. Priming at 30 °C with 1 mm GA3 resulted in the greatest emergence percentage, hypocotyl length, and shoot dry weight. We conclude that matric priming is a satisfactory alternative to osmotic priming of parsley seeds. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).

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Wallace G. Pill and Elizabeth A. Kilian

`Moss Curled' seeds of parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) were primed osmotically in polyethylene glycol or matrically in fine, exfoliated vermiculite at -0.5 MPa for 4 or 7 days at 20 or 30 °C with 0 or 1 mm GA3. All priming treatments stimulated and hastened germination. Matric priming resulted in greater germination (89%) than osmotic priming (83%) when seeds were primed for 7 days at 30 °C, but priming agent had no effect on germination percentage following priming at 20 °C or for 4 days. In seeds primed for 4 days at 20 or 30 °C, matric priming hastened germination more than did osmotic priming. Germination was generally less synchronous with matric than with osmotic priming. Increasing priming time from 4 to 7 days increased the rate of germination, but increased germination synchrony only when seeds were primed a t 20 °C. Inclusion of 1 mm GA3 during priming had little or no effect on germination. All matric priming treatments (other than 4-day priming) were repeated to assess seedling emergence in a greenhouse (25°C day/22 °C night). Priming increased the percentage, rate and synchrony of emergence, and increased hypocotyl length at 3 weeks after planting. Priming at 30 °C with 1 mm GA3 resulted in the greatest emergence percentage, hypocotyl length, and shoot dry weight. We conclude that matric priming is a satisfactory alternative to osmotic priming of parsley seeds. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).

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Shimon Meir, Sonia Philosoph-Hadas, and Nehemia Aharoni

A newly developed rapid and convenient method was used for fractionation and analysis of fluorescent compounds (FCs) formed during lipid peroxidation in parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill.) leaves. These lipofuscin-like FCs [which arise in vivo from reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) with amino acids] were found to increase during the senescence of detached parsley leaves, following the commencement of chlorophyll degradation and proteolysis. However, accumulation of FCs in response to exogenous ethylene coincided with the onset of chlorophyll loss and proteolysis on day 2 and was accelerated markedly later. Unlike FC accumulation, levels of aldehydes and MDA in control leaves increased more drastically during senescence, but were not affected significantly by exogenous ethylene. The results suggest that the accumulation of FCs in detached parsley leaves exposed to exogenous ethylene is an early senescence-associated process.

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Michael W. Olszewski, Wallace G. Pill, and Thompson D. Pizzolato

`Moss Curled' parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman ex. A.W. Hill] schizocarps were osmotically primed in polyethylene glycol at -1.0 MPa for 7 days at 20 °C. The smaller of the two mericarps within a parsley schizocarp had lower germination percentage, but similar rate and synchrony of germination. Osmotic priming increased germination percentage, rate, and synchrony, irrespective of mericarp half. This promotive effect of priming on germination was associated with embryonic advancement as indicated by a doubling of radicle and cotyledon volumes, without changes in lengths of these organs. Periclinal divisions of the lateral expansion meristem, distinct in primed radicles but indistinct in nonprimed radicles, led to radial alignment of the cortical cells and a doubling of cortical volume and thereby increased radicle volume. Each embryonic cotyledon of primed mericarps had three distinct procambial bundles that differentiated along most of the cotyledon length, while nonprimed cotyledons had from zero to three that differentiated only a short way into the cotyledon. Priming increased coyledonary procambium length by 5-fold and volume by 11-fold. Increased embryonic growth due to priming was associated with greater endosperm depletion adjacent to the embryo. The schizocarps frequently separated or partially separated into component mericarps during priming, indicating a weakening of pericarp tissue along the commissural suture and possibly elsewhere.

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Christopher J. Currey, Vincent C. Metz, Nicholas J. Flax, Alex G. Litvin, and Brian E. Whipker

sativum ), and parsley ( Petroselinum crispum ) growth ( Appling, 2012 ). Maintaining the substrate moisture content of containerized sweet basil, dill ( Anethum graveolens ), parsley, and sage ( Salvia officinalis ) at 40% to 50% less (by volume) than

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Alexander G. Litvin, Christopher J. Currey, and Lester A. Wilson

), and parsley ( Petroselinum crispum ) are popular for their aroma and flavor attributes, nutritional value ( Brown, 1991 ), historic cultural value ( Cook and Samman, 1996 ; Justesen and Knuthsen, 2001 ), and ornamental appeal ( Morales and Simon, 1996

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Jacqueline A. Ricotta and John B. Masiunas

Black polyethylene mulch and weed control strategies were evaluated for potential use by small acreage herb producers. In both 1988 and 1989, the mulch greatly increased fresh and dry weight yields of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). Parsley (Petroselinum crispum Nym.) yield did not respond to the mulch. Preplant application of napropamide provided weed control for 2 weeks, but was subsequently not effective on a heavy infestation of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.). Hand-hoed and glyphosate-treated plots (both with and without plastic) produced equivalent yields. Chemical names used: N, N -diethyl-2(1-napthalenoxy)-propanamide (napropamide); N- (phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate).

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Alexander A. Csizinszky

Sweet marjoram [(marjoram) Origanum majoranna], Italian parsley [(parsley) Petroselinum crispum], Summer savory [(savory) Satureja hortensis], and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were evaluated for their yield potential during Fall–Winter–Spring (Oct.–May) 1998–99. The herbs were grown in a light sandy soil with the full-bed polyethylene mulch-micro(trickle) irrigation system. Experimental design was a split-plot replicated three times. Main plots were two N–P–K treatments: 0 N–P–K or N and K from a liquid 4–0–3.32 (N–P–K) fertilizer injected at 0.77 N and 0.64 K kg·ha–1·day–1. Sub-plots were four compost rates at 0x, 1x, 2x, and 4x (1x = 4.5 t·ha–1). Early and seasonal total yields of marjoram and savory were similar with injected N + K and 0x compost to yields with compost and with or without injected N + K fertilizer. Yields of parsley and thyme increased with increasing compost rates and were best with compost plus liquid N + K. Postharvest soil concentrations of NO3-N were lower in the parsley, than in the marjoram, savory and thyme plots. Residual concentrations of all other elements were similar with or without injected N + K or compost treatments.

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A. A. Csizinszky

Italian parsley (parsley) Petroselinum crispum, summer savory (savory) Satureja hortensis, sweet marjoram (marjoram) Origanum majoranna, and thyme Thymus vulgaris, were evaluated for their yield potential in multiple harvest during the fall–winter–spring (Dec.–May 1997–98). The herbs were grown with the full-bed polyethylene mulch-micro (trickle) irrigation system. Experimental design was a split-plot arranged in three randomized complete blocks. Main plots were two N–P–K treatments: 0 N–P–K or N and K from a liquid 4N–0P–3.32K fertilizer injected at 0.77 N and 0.64 K kg/ha per day. In the subplots, compost was applied in a 4 to 8 inches wide band on the pre-bed at 0x, 1x, 2x, and 4x rates (1x = 4.5 t·ha–1). Parsley and marjoram yields in the first three harvests and thyme yields in the first two harvests were similar with 0x compost and N + K injected fertilizers to yields with 3x and 4x compost rates with no injected N + K fertilizers. For the season, yields were higher with injected N + K fertilizers with or without compost, than in the compost treated plots with no N + K fertilizers.