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Jianjun Zhang, Wei Zhu, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Yongming Fan, and Xiaonan Yu

Herbaceous peony ( Paeonia lactiflora Pall., Paeoniaceae) is a popular ornamental plant that grows well in temperate regions, blooming from May to July in the Northern hemisphere ( Zhao et al., 2012 ). P. lactiflora has a long-standing reputation

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Michael R. Evans, Neil O. Anderson, and Harold F. Wilkins

Various durations of rooting at 15C and storage at 5.X and exogenous GA, (1000 ppm) application were used on dormant unrooted peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) tubers of `Sarah Bernhardt', `Festiva Supreme' `Krinkled White', and `Scarlet O'Hara'. Four weeks of cooling were sufficient to break dormancy. Days to emergence, first bud color, and anthesis were reduced as the length of cold storage increased from 4 to 20 weeks. Height and number of shoots emerging per pot increased with increased cooling. All flower buds aborted when tubers were cooled for 20 weeks. When noncooled tubers were given a 1000-ppm GA, soil drench, shoots emerged within 7.5 days; untreated tubers failed to emerge after 5 months. When tubers were treated with GA,, all flower buds aborted.

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Abraham H. Halevy, Menashe Levi, Menashe Cohen, and Vered Naor

Experiments to advance early production of herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) flowers were conducted over 8 years in the higher elevation, cooler regions of Israel. Anatomical studies during the summer revealed that flower bud initiation of apical buds in the crowns began at the end of July and continued also in lateral buds from mid-August until the plants became dormant in mid-November. Container-grown plants of various cultivars were moved to cold rooms maintained for 10 to 13 weeks at 2 °C, from mid-August to mid-October, then drenched with 250 mL of various concentrations of GA3 and transferred to a greenhouse. The optimal GA3 concentration for flower production was 100 mg·L-1. Plants treated in this way flowered 2-3 months before the natural flowering period. Field-grown plants in uncovered greenhouse structures were exposed to natural winter cold temperatures (0-10 °C), until they had received various chill units according to a “dynamic model” (for details see Erez et al., 1988). The crowns were then drenched with various amounts and concentrations of GA3, and the greenhouses were covered with plastic sheets. The optimal chill units for most cultivars was 40 and the optimal GA3 drench treatment was 250 mL of 100 mg·L-1. Covered and GA3-treated field-grown plants flowered ≈1 month earlier than untreated plants grown in the open field. The GA3 treatment also greatly increased the number of produced flowers.

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Amalia Barzilay, Hanita Zemah, Rina Kamenetsky, and Itzhak Ran

The life cycle and morphogenesis of the floral shoot of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas cv. Sarah Bernhardt were studied under Israeli conditions. The renewal buds for the following year originate on the underground crown, at the base of the annual stems. Bud emergence begins in early spring. Stems elongate rapidly and reach heights of 50-70 cm in 60-70 days. Flowering begins in April and continues until the end of May. After flowering, the leafy stems remain green until September-October, when the leaves senesce, and the peony plant enters the “rest” stage for 3-4 months. The new monocarpic shoot initiated in the renewal bud at the end of June with the formation of the first leaf primordia and continued to increase in size until February. During summer, the renewal buds remain vegetative. The apical meristem ceases leaf formation after senescence of the aboveground shoots in the fall. During September, the apical meristem of the renewal buds reaches the generative stage and achieves the form of a dome, but remains undifferentiated. In October, floral parts become visible. Floral differentiation is terminated at the beginning of December. Floral initiation and differentiation of peony do not require low temperatures. Morphological development and florogenesis were similar to other geophyte species with an annual thermoperiodic life cycle.

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Mingyue Bao, Minmin Liu, Qingxia Zhang, Tonglin Wang, Xia Sun, and Jinguang Xu

the products of functional gene expression that control changes in the sugar content ( He et al., 2010 ). Herbaceous peony ( Paeonia lactiflora ) is a perennial herbaceous plant that exhibits varied flower types and colors. In Tai’an, China (lat. 117

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Qi Wang, Rui Zhao, Qihang Chen, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Liqi Chen, and Xiaonan Yu

processes can reflect a plant’s response to environmental stresses (Lambers et al., 2008). Paeonia lactiflora , a traditional ornamental plant, has a cultivation history of more than 3900 years and is currently a sought-after cut flower in international

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Chaowei Song, Qi Wang, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, and Xiaonan Yu

structure analysis on the wild population in Paeonia lactiflora Acta Hort. Sinica 38 503 512 Hu, X.L. Yin, F.J. Cheng, Q.F. Zhu, C.T. Song, Z.Y. 2008 Analysis of active constituents in peony flowers at different blossoming stages Food Sci. 29 511 514 Huang

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Qianqian Shi, Long Li, Lin Zhou, and Yan Wang

bottom of the inner perianth of T. gesneriana is attributed to Fe 2+ ( Momonoi et al., 2009 ; Shoji et al., 2010 ). In red and yellow petals of Paeonia lactiflora , K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn were abundant and showed significant correlation coefficient

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Lihong Hao, Hui Ma, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, and XiaoNan Yu

the world, the Chinese Peony Cultivar Group [Lactiflora Group (LG)], the European Peony Cultivar Group [Officinalis Group (OG)], and the Hybrid Peony Cultivar Group [Hybrid Group (HG)] ( Li, 1999 ; Qin, 2004 ). Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is the

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Pedro García-Caparrós, Olga González-Salmerón, Mónica Pérez-Saiz, Raquel Calatrava, María Teresa Lao, Rosa María Chica, and Gumersindo De la Cruz

-woven shade cloths providing 38%, 61%, or 86% shade or no shade ( Hutchinson et al., 2012 ), while plant height increased in other ornamental plants as Paeonia lactiflora ( Zhao et al., 2012 ) and Tecoma stans ( Torres and Lopez, 2011 ) under high levels