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Diana Niñirola, Juan A. Fernández, Encarnación Conesa, Juan A. Martínez, and Catalina Egea-Gilabert

quite recently. They include watercress [ Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek = Nasturtium officinale R. Br.], alone or mixed with another leafy vegetable. Watercress is native from Europe to central Asia and is one of the oldest of the leafy

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Usha Palaniswamy, Richard McAvoy, and Bernard Bible

Watercress plants were grown in growth chambers at 15°C or 25°C and either an 8- or 12-hour photoperiod (PP). The photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) was 265 μmol·m–2·s–1 in all chambers, but beginning 1 week before harvest, half of the plants in each chamber were subjected to a higher PPF (434 μmol·m–2·s–1). At harvest, watercress leaves and stems were analyzed for phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) content. Watercress grown at 25°C, the 12-hour PP, and 1 week of high PPF produced the highest PEITC concentration in leaves and stems, and plants grown at 15°C, the 8-hour PP, and the low PPF until harvest produced the lowest PEITC concentration. Plants grown at the 8-hour PP, then exposed to 1 week of high PPF, produced 57.3% and 45.9% greater PEITC at 25 and 15°C, respectively, then plants exposed to the low PPF until harvest. However, plants grown at the 12-hour PP and subjected to 1 week of high PPF produced PEITC levels similar to plants grown under the low PPF at 25 and 15°C. At 25°C, plants grown under the low PPF and the 12-hour PP produced 62% greater dry mass than plants exposed to 1 week of high PPF and the 8-hour PP, but did not differ in PEITC content. Thus, the effect of 1 week of high PPF on PEITC concentration depended on photoperiod.

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Usha Palaniswamy, Richard McAvoy, and Bernard Bible

Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R.Br.) plants were grown in growth chambers at 15 °C or 25 °C and either 8- or 12-h photoperiod (PP). The photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) was 265 μmol·m-2s-1 in all chambers, but beginning 1 week before harvest, half of the plants in each chamber were subjected to a higher PPF (435 μmol·m-2·s-1). At harvest, watercress leaves and stems were analyzed for phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) concentration. Without supplemental PPF, watercress grown at 25 °C and 12-h PP produced higher PEITC concentration in leaves and stems than plants grown at 15 °C and 12-h PP, or plants grown at 8-h PP and either temperature. With one week of supplemental PPF before harvest, plants grown at 15 or 25 °C and the 8-h PP produced PEITC concentrations as high as plants exposed to 12-h PP and similar temperatures. However, a week of supplemental PPF did not alter PEITC concentrations in plants grown at the 12-h PP, regardless of temperature. At 25 °C, plants grown under the low PPF and the 12-h PP produced 62% greater dry mass than plants exposed to a week of high PPF and the 8-h PP, but did not differ in PEITC content. Thus, the effect of one week of high PPF on PEITC concentration depended on photoperiod.

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Usha R. Palaniswamy and Richard J. McAvoy

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Usha Rani Palaniswamy, Richard McAvoy, Bernard Bible, Suman Singha, and Dennis Hill

A study was initiated to identify cultural conditions that optimize the production of important chemopreventive agents in watercress. Chemopreventatives are chemical compounds that reduce or prevent diseases such as cancer. Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) contains phenylethyl glucosinolate that, on hydrolysis, yields PEITC, and PEITC is one of the most-important anti-carcinogens among the cruciferous chemopreventatives tested. Watercress was grown in closed hydroponic systems containing 200 ppm nitrogen and either 64, 128, and 192 ppm sulfur to yield N:S ratios of 1:0.3, 1:0.6, and 1:0.9. The experiment was laid out as RCBD in the greenhouse with six replications. PEITC levels in leaf and stem tissue was assayed using gas chromatograph. After 36 days in the treatment solutions, watercress grown at a N:S ratio of 1:0.6 produced 90.1% and 65.3% (in repeated experiments) more PEITC than plants grown at a N:S ratio of 1:0.3. Plants grown in nutrient solution with a N:S ratio of 1:0.9 produced 57.4% and 24.2% greater PEITC than those grown with a N:S ratio of 1:0.3. Plants grown in a nutrient solution with a N:S ratio of 1:0.9 produced 17.2% to 24.2% less PEITC than those grown with a N:S ratio of 1:0.6. Leaves contained 54% to 70% more PEITC per unit dry mass than stems, suggesting that the leaf is the major site of synthesis and storage of PEITC.

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Veronica L. Justen and Vincent A. Fritz

at 12 °C ( Charron and Sams, 2004 ). Engelen-Eigles and colleagues (2006) found that the concentration of the aromatic glucosinolate gluconasturtiin was increased in Nasturtium officinale grown at 10 and 15 °C as compared with that grown at 20 or

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Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams

significantly increased after exposure to the blue LED treatment ( Table 3 ). There is one example present in the literature in which gluconastutiin concentrations in watercress ( Nasturtium officinale ) were significantly higher after exposure to red light as

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Fernando A. De Villena, Vincent A. Fritz, Jerry D. Cohen, and William D. Hutchison

several crucifers such as watercress ( Nasturtium officinale L.) and Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis L.). Because of the chemopreventive properties of PEITC, it is desirable to characterize gluconasturtiin (precursor of PEITC

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Dean A. Kopsell, Carl E. Sams, Dennis E. Deyton, Kristin R. Abney, David E. Kopsell, and Larry Robertson

Kopsell, D.A. Barickman, T.C. Sams, C.E. McElroy, J.S. 2007a Influence of nitrogen and sulfur on biomass production and carotenoid and glucosinolate concentrations in watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R.Br.) J. Agr

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Dean A. Kopsell, James T. Brosnan, Gregory R. Armel, and J. Scott McElroy

watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) J. Agr. Food Chem. 55 10628 10634 Latowski, D. Grzyb, J. Strzatka, K. 2004 The xanthophyll cycle—Molecular mechanism and physiological significance Acta Physiol