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G. Bélair and L.E. Parent

The influence of various crop rotations on population densities of Meloidogyne hapla, the northern root-knot nematode, and subsequent carrot yields was studied in organic soil under field conditions. Seven 3-year sequences with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), or weedy fallow, all with carrot as the third-year crop, were replicated six times in a completely randomized block design. Carrot monoculture, two seasons of weedy fallow, or carrot followed by onion resulted in high M. hapla population densities and severe root damage on carrot the third year. Barley followed by onion or onion followed by barley harbored low M. hapla population densities and provided the highest yields, with 56.8 and 47.2 t marketable carrots/ha, respectively, compared to 2.2 t·ha–1 in the carrot monoculture. A single crop of barley reduced nematode population densities and provided 88% and 73% marketable carrot roots in the subsequent years. High M. hapla population densities and the high proportion of culls recorded in plots in weed fallow emphasize the importance of an effective weed management program for successfully using crop rotation against root-knot nematode in muck-grown carrot.

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Min Wang and I.L. Goldman

The root-knot nematode (M. hapla Chitwood) poses a threat to carrot (Daucus carota L.) production in the United States. Little information is available concerning the genetic control of nematode resistance in carrot. Crosses between two inbreds, a resistant genotype (R1) and susceptible genotype (S1) identified in previous screening tests of carrot were studied in the F2 and BC1 generations to determine the heritability of resistance to the root-knot nematode. Seedlings of F2 (R1/S1), BC1S1, and BC1R1 generations were evaluated for their responses to infestation of M. hapla Chitwood based on gall number per root, gall rating per root, and root rating per root in a greenhouse experiment conducted during 1994. Narrow-sense heritabilities were calculated according to the method of Warner (1952). Narrow-sense heritability was 0.16 for resistance based on gall number, 0.88 for resistance based on gall rating, and 0.78 for resistance based on root rating. This information may be of importance to geneticists and carrot breeders for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars.

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Maria-Jose Rubio-Cabetas, Jean-Claude Minot, Roger Voisin, D. Esmenjaud, Georges Salesses, and Abel Bonnet

In `Myrobalan' plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehr.), Ma1 and Ma2 are single major dominant genes that control the resistance to the predominant root-knot nematode (RKN) species Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, M. incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, and M. javanica (Treub). These genes were evaluated for activity to the northern RKN M. hapla Chitwood and the tropical RKN M. mayaguensis Rammah & Hirschmann, neither of which is controlled by the Mi gene from tomato. This study was conducted under greenhouse conditions using a resistance screening based on high and durable inoculum pressure by the nematodes. Tests were conducted simultaneously for: M. arenaria (as a reference for the Ma genes); M. hapla and M. mayaguensis from crosses segregating for either Ma2 alone or Ma2 and Ma1 and involving the resistant parental clones P.2175 (heterozygous for Ma1) and P.1079 (homozygous for Ma2); and the host parental clone P.2646 (recessive for both Ma genes). Each parental clone and each individual of the segregating progenies reacted in a similar way to M. arenaria and M. mayaguensis, indicating that the Ma genes also control resistance to M. mayaguensis. By contrast, all parental clones and progenies were completely resistant to M. hapla, and, despite high inoculum pressure, no effect of the Ma genes on this species could be established.

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Min Wang and I.L. Goldman

The genetics of resistance to root-knot nematode (M. hapla Chitwood) was studied in crosses of three carrot inbred genotypes, two resistant genotypes (R1 and R2) and one susceptible genotype (S1) identified in previous screening tests. Seedlings of three parental genotypes, six F1 crosses including three reciprocal crosses, two BC1 populations, and three F2 populations were evaluated for their resistance and susceptibility to infestation of M. hapla Chitwood based on gall number per root, gall rating per root, and root rating per root in a greenhouse experiment carried out in 1994. All six F1 plants were susceptible, which indicated a lack of heterosis for resistance in these F1s. The R1 × S1 cross segregated 3 susceptible: 1 resistant in the F2, 1 susceptible: 1 resistant in the BC1R1, and did not segregate in the BC1S1. The R1 × R2 cross yielded 44 susceptible: 36 resistant seedlings in the F2 (R1R2), and 48 susceptible: 32 resistant in the reciprocal cross of R1 and R2, both of which closely fit a 9: 7 ratio (P ≤ 0.001). These results indicate these two resistant genotypes carry two different homozygous recessive genes conditioning root-knot nematode resistance. We propose a model of duplicate recessive epistasis control the reactions of host plants and nematode in these crosses.

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Martin Schochow, Steven A. Tjosvold, and Antoon T. Ploeg

Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.] plants were grown in soil infested with increasing densities of Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, M. incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, or M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood, root-knot nematodes. Compared to tomato plants grown in soil with the same nematode numbers and species, lisianthus had less severe root symptoms, suffered less damage, and resulted in lower nematode multiplication rates. Lisianthus was a better host for M. javanica than for M. incognita, and a poor host for M. hapla. Lisianthus shoot weights were significantly reduced after inoculation with M. javanica or M. hapla, but not after M. incognita inoculation. The number of flowers produced per lisianthus plant was reduced by all three nematode species. The results show that the root-knot nematode species that are most common in California may cause significant damage in the cut-flower production of lisianthus.

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James F. Hancock, Peter W. Callow, Sedat Serçe, and Annemiek C. Schilder

The performance of four California and 11 eastern cultivars of Fragaria×ananassa Duchesne in Lamarck, and 12 elite F1 hybrids of Fragaria×ananassa with F. virginiana Miller in their immediate background was evaluated in a producer's field with and without methyl bromide-chloropicrin fumigation. Averaged across all genotypes, plants in nonfumigated soils had 43% fewer runners, 18% smaller fruit, and 46% lower yields than did plants on fumigated soil. They also had an average of 27% fewer crowns, 49% more root discoloration, significantly fewer fine roots, and showed symptoms of the black root rot syndrome. The most commonly isolated pathogens from discolored roots were Pythium sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Idriella lunata P.E. Nelson & K. Wilh., and the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood). The performance of all genotypes was enhanced by fumigation, although the F. virginiana hybrids performed comparatively better than the other cultivars on nonfumigated soils.

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Brian A. Kahn, John P. Damicone, Kenneth E. Jackson, James E. Motes, and Mark E. Payton

Nine nematicide treatments were evaluated from 1993 through 1995 in field experiments on paprika pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Materials tested included a chitinurea soil amendment and six chemicals: fosthiazate, carbofuran, aldicarb, oxamyl, fenamiphos, and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D). Stands at harvest were increased relative to the control by chitin-urea, fosthiazate, and 1,3-D, but only fosthiazate increased marketable fruit yield relative to the control. Aldicarb reduced preharvest nematode populations relative to the control, but aldicarb did not result in a significant fruit yield increase. Chitin-urea was the only treatment to produce a net increase in nematode counts from preplant to preharvest in all three years. Although fosthiazate was promising, nematicide treatments were of limited benefit under the conditions of these studies. Chemical names used: (RS)-S-sec-butyl O-ethyl 2-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-ylphosphonothioate (fosthiazate); 2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate (carbofuran); 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-(methylcarbamoyl)oxime (aldicarb); methyl N′N′ -dimethyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]-1-thiooxamimidate (oxamyl); ethyl 3-methyl-4-(methylthio)phenyl(1-methylethyl) phosphoramidate (fenamiphos).

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Judy A. Thies and Richard L. Fery

Several species of root-knot nematodes [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, M. arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood, and M. hapla Chitwood] are major pests of peppers (Capsicum spp.) in the United States and worldwide. Resistance to M. incognita, M. arenaria, and M. javanica has been identified in several Capsicum accessions, but there are few reports of resistance to M. hapla. Therefore, we selected a 10% core (440 accessions) of the 14 available Capsicum spp. in the Capsicum germplasm collection (3,731 accessions) maintained by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA), and evaluated this core for resistance to M. hapla in unreplicated greenhouse tests. The 11 best (most resistant) and the 3 worst (most susceptible) accessions identified in these unreplicated tests were re-evaluated in a replicated greenhouse test. Seven of these 11 “best” accessions (PI 357613, PI 357503, PI 439381, PI 297493, PI 430490, PI 267729, and PI 441676) exhibited root gall severity indices <5.0 (1 = no galls; 9 = more than 80% of the root system covered with galls) in the replicated test, and each of these indices was significantly lower than the indices of the “worst” accessions and susceptible controls. Although a gall index <5.0 indicates a moderate level of resistance, more than 3000 M. hapla eggs were extracted per gram of fresh root tissue and the reproductive index was >1.0 for each of these accessions. These observations suggest that the most resistant accessions tested are somewhat susceptible to M. hapla. The results of our evaluation of a core of the USDA Capsicum germplasm collection demonstrates clearly that there is significant genetic variability within the overall collection for M. hapla resistance. Additionally, these results identify portions of the collection where future evaluations for M. hapla resistance should be focused. For example, the origin of the two most promising C. annuum accessions (PI 357613 and PI 357503) in the core was Yugoslavia. Thus, additional accessions from this temperate region of the world should receive priority attention in any effort to identify better sources of resistance in C. annuum to M. hapla.

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K.S. Lewers, W.W. Turechek, S.C. Hokanson, J.L. Maas, J.F. Hancock, S. Serçe, and B.J. Smith

common foliar diseases, resistance to black root rot (causal organisms unknown) ( Hancock et al., 2001b , 2002 ), and resistance to northern root-knot nematode ( Meloidogyne hapla ) and root-lesion nematode ( Pratylenchus penetrans ) ( Pinkerton and Finn

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D. Esmenjaud, J.C. Minot, R. Voisin, J. Pinochet, and G. Salesses

Resistance variability was evaluated for five rootstock: three Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehr.) genotypes (P.1079, P.2175, and P.2032) grown from in vitro plantlets, one peach (P. persica (L.) Batsch `GF 305') grown from seeds, and one peach-almond hybrid (P. persica × P. amygdalus Batsch `GF 557') grown from rooted cuttings. Twenty-two root-knot nematode populations from different origins were used: Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood (six populations), M. incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood (eight populations), M.javanica (Treub) (four populations), M. hispanica Hirschmann (one population), M. hapla Chitwood (two populations), and an unclassified root-knot species (one population). The study was conducted under greenhouse conditions for 1 and 2 months. No galling or nematode reproduction was observed in P.1079 and P.2175, which should be considered immune; P.2032 showed the highest galling and nematode counts when inoculated with M. hispanica and M. javanica. In P.2032, a high proportion of males was recovered in populations that had a limited development. Because the populations of the first four Meloidogyne species reproduce by obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis, high sex ratio maybe the expression of a late form of resistance. Host suitability of `GF 305' was highly variable among M. arenaria and M. incognita populations. A lower relative variation was observed in M. javanica. `GF 557' was resistant to M. arenaria and M. incognita except for one population of M. arenaria that was weakly aggressive and susceptible to M. javanica. Consequently, resistances specific to the genus Meloidogyne for the Myrobalan plum genotypes P.1079 and P.2175, specific to the nematode species for `GF 557', and specific to the nematode population for `GF 305', were evidenced. This study indicates that, in rootstock selection procedures, it is important to test resistance to several populations within the same nematode species.