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Catherine M. Grieve, James A. Poss, Peter J. Shouse, and Christy T. Carter

harvest dates for marketable flowers. The test species chosen for this study was stock ( Matthiola incana ) cultivar Cheerful White, a relatively salt-tolerant crop ( Grieve et al., 2006 ; Lunt et al., 1954 ). Materials and Methods The experiment

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Fisun G. Çelikel and Michael S. Reid

The respiration of flowers of stock [Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br.] had a Q10 of 6.9 between 0 and 10 °C. Simulated transport for 5 days resulted in marked reduction in the vase life of flowers transported at 10 °C and above. Flower opening, water uptake, and vase life of the flowers increased somewhat in a vase solution containing 50 ppm NaOCl, and considerably in a commercial preservative containing glucose and a bactericide. Exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in rapid desiccation and abscission of the petals, effects that were prevented by pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). Even in the absence of exogenous ethylene, the life of the flowers was significantly increased by inhibiting ethylene action using pretreatment with silver thiosulfate (STS) or 1-MCP. STS was more effective than 1-MCP in maintaining flower quality.

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C.M. Grieve, J.A. Poss, and C. Amrhein

Two cultivars of Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br. (`Cheerful White' and `Frolic Carmine') were grown in greenhouse sand cultures to determine the effect of salt stress on growth, ion relations, and flower quality. Two types of irrigation waters, differing in ion composition, were prepared to simulate saline wastewaters commonly present in two inland valley locations in California. Solution ICV was typical of saline tailwaters frequently found in the Imperial and Coachella Valleys and contained Cl, Na+, SO4 2–, Mg2+, Ca2+, predominating in that order. Solution SJV was dominated by Na+ and SO4 2– and simulated saline drainage effluents often present in the San Joaquin Valley. Five treatments of each salinity type were imposed; each was replicated three times. Electrical conductivities of the irrigation waters (ECi) were 2.5, 5, 8, 11, and 14 dS·m–1. Plant heights were determined weekly. Seedlings were sampled for ion analysis 9 weeks after planting. Flowering stems were harvested when about 50% of the florets in the inflorescence were open. Total stem length, weight and diameter, numbers of florets and buds, and inflorescence length were measured at final harvest. All plants remained healthy throughout the experimental period with no visible signs of ion toxicity or deficiency. Although length of the flowering stems decreased with increasing salinity, stems were of marketable quality even at the highest salinity level. Mineral ion composition of the vegetative tissues generally reflected ion concentrations in the irrigation waters. Shoot Mg2+ and Cl were higher and shoot Na+ lower in seedlings irrigated with ICV waters than with SJV waters. Shoot P was reduced over control levels once salinity exceeded 11 dS·m–1. Both cultivars were highly selective for K+ over Na + and selectivity coefficients (SK, Na) increase about 60% as salinity increased from 2.5 to 14 dS·m–1. This study illustrates that commercially acceptable cut flowers of stock may be produced under irrigation with moderately saline wastewaters.

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Ron Ecker, Amalia Barzilay, Levy Afgin, and Abd-elrahem A. Watad

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B. Dansereau, Y. Zhang, S. Gagnon, and H.L. Xu

We examined effects of single-layer glass and double-layer antifog polyethylene films on growth and flowering of stock (Matthiola incana L.) and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majalis L.) in a 3-year period. Stock produced more buds/spike with shorter but thicker stems under single-layer glass and under antifog 3-year polyethylene, and showed higher photosynthetic capacity (P c) under single-layer glass than under other covers regardless of light regimes. Similarly, growth and flowering of snapdragon were significantly better under single-layer glass than in polyethylene houses. A supplemental light of 60 μmol·m-2·s-1 accelerated flowering by 20 to 25 days, improved flower quality, and eliminated differences in plant growth and quality of snapdragon between covering treatments. The P c of stock was lower under all polyethylene covers than under single-layer glass. Among the three antifog polyethylene films, a slightly higher P c was measured for plants under antifog 3-year polyethylene. However, there was no difference among covering treatments in the net photosynthetic rate (P N) at low light level (canopy level). Supplemental lighting reduced P c of stock leaves, especially under single-layer glass, and diminished differences in P c among covering treatments. Dry mass was more influenced by larger leaf area caused by higher leaf temperature than by P N. Overall, antifog 3-year polyethylene was a good covering material when both plant quality and energy saving were considered.

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Jeff S. Kuehny, Aaron Painter, and Patricia C. Branch

Eight bedding plant species were grown from plugs obtained from two sources. The plugs were transplanted into jumbo six packs and sprayed with a solution of chlormequat/daminozide with concentrations of 1000/800, 1250/1250, or 1500/5000 mg·L-1 when new growth was ≈5 cm in height or width. Three different species were grown in the fall (Dianthus chinensis L., `Telstar Mix', Petunia ×hybrida Hort. Vilm.-Andr., `Dreams Red', and Viola ×wittrockiana Gams., `Bingo Blue'), winter [Antirrhinum majus L., `Tahiti Mix', Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br., `Midget Red', and P. × hybrida, `Dreams Mix'], and spring [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, `Cooler Pink', Salvia splendens F. Sellow ex Roem. & Schult., `Empire Red', and Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum Hort., `Cocktail Mix']. The treatments significantly reduced finished plant size of all species for each season. There was a significant difference in finish size between sources for Dianthus, Antirrhinum, Matthiola, Catharanthus, Salvia, and Begonia. The efficacy of chlormequat/daminozide also differed for each source of Dianthus, Matthiola, and Begonia, but the treatments minimized the differences in finish size between sources for Petunia and Viola. Chemical names used: (2-chlorethyl) trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat); (N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid) (daminozide).

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Ben A. Bergmann, John M. Dole, and Ingram McCall

earliness and increased production in Gladiolus Gartenbauwissenschaf 49 91 94 Grzesik, M. 1995 Effect of growth regulators on plant growth and seed yield of Matthiola incana , ‘Brilliant Barbara’ Seed Sci. Technol. 23 801 806 GuoSheng, Z. ShuPeng, G

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Iftikhar Ahmad, Muhammad B. Rafiq, John M. Dole, Bilal Abdullah, and Kinza Habib

Postharvest handling of stock ( Matthiola incana ) HortScience 37 144 147 Clark, E.M.R. Dole, J.M. Carlson, A.S. Moody, E.P. McCall, I.F. Fanelli, F.L. Fonteno, W.C. 2010 Vase life of new cut flower cultivars HortTechnology 20 1016 1025 Dole, J.M. Greer, L

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Samantha R. Nobes, Karen L. Panter, and Randa Jabbour

in this study included ‘Princess Golden’ pot marigold ( Calendula officinalis ), ‘Lucinda Mix’ stock ( Matthiola incana ), ‘Double Mix’ strawflower ( Helichrysum bracteatum ), ‘Dara’ ornamental carrot ( Daucus carota ), and ‘Celway Mix’ cockscomb

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Tasneem M. Vaid, Erik S. Runkle, and Jonathan M. Frantz

impatiens ( Impatiens hawkeri ‘Divine Cherry Red’), osteospermum ( Osteospermum ecklonis ‘Asti Purple’), pot marigold ( Calendula officinalis ‘Bon Bon Orange’), snapdragon ( Antirrhinum majus ‘Liberty Classic Cherry’), stock ( Matthiola incana ‘Hot