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Nader R. Abdelsalam, Hayssam M. Ali, Mohamed Z.M. Salem, Elsayed G. Ibrahem, and Mohamed S. Elshikh

Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-eight mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cultivars were included for horticultural and molecular markers analyses. The cultivars were obtained from the Agricultural Research Center, Horticulture Research

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T.M.M. Malundo, R.L. Shewfelt, G.O. Ware, and E.A. Baldwin

Information on important flavor components for fruit and vegetables is lacking and would be useful for breeders and molecular biologists. Effects of sugar and acid levels on mango (Mangifera indica L.) flavor perception were analyzed. Twelve treatments, identified using a constrained simplex lattice mixture design, were formulated by adding sugar (60%), citric acid (40%), and water to an equal volume of mango homogenate. Using 150-mm nonstructured line scales, a trained panel evaluated the treatments according to 11 flavor descriptors. Titratable acidity (TA), pH, and total soluble solids (TSS) were also determined. Acid concentration affected ratings for sweet, sour, peachy, pine/terpentine, astringent, and biting. Except for sour taste, all descriptors were affected by sugar content while increasing water increased intensities of all flavor notes. TA, pH, and TSS/TA correlated (P < 0.01) with and were useful predictors (r > 0.80) of sour taste and chemical feeling descriptors astringent and biting. TSS, however, was not a particularly good indicator of sweetness (r = 0.72) or any other descriptor except possibly peachy (r = 0.79). It is evident from this study that sugars and acids enhance human perception of specific flavor notes in mango, including aromatics.

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A. Adato, D. Sharon, U. Lavi, J. Hillel, and S. Gazit

DNA fingerprint information was used for identification of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars for genetic relatedness analysis of20 mango cultivars and for genetic analysis of a family structure. Genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves, digested with Hind III or Dra I, and hybridized with 10 different DNA probes. Jeffreys' minisatellite probe 33.6 was the most useful, resulting in well-resolved bands representing highly polymorphic loci. Specific patterns were obtained for each cultivar. The probability of obtaining a similar pattern for two different cultivars was 9.4 × 10-6. Based on DNA fingerprint information, genetic distances between 20 mango cultivars were evaluated and an evolutionary tree was established. Analysis of DNA fingerprint band patterns of 12 progeny resulting from a cross between `Tommy Atkins' and `Keitt' mango revealed neither linked nor allelic bands. Application of the reported results for identification, genetic analyses, and mango breeding is discussed.

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Zhengke Zhang, Zhaoyin Gao, Min Li, Meijiao Hu, Hui Gao, Dongping Yang, and Bo Yang

The sensitivity of mango ( Mangifera indica L.) fruit to CI when exposed to temperature below 13 °C limits the use of refrigeration to extend its storage and shelf life ( Nair and Singh, 2003 ). CI symptoms of mango fruit are mainly manifested as

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Simon A. Mng’omba and Elsa S. du Toit

area) on the graft success of Mangifera indica (mango), Persia americana (avocado), and Prunus persica (peach) fruit trees. We selected these three tree species because they are among the commonly grafted fruit trees in the tropics although peach

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Keryl K. Jacobi and Don Gowanlock

Mature green `Kensington' mango fruit were submerged in hot water at 46C until the fruit center reached 45C and then held for 30 minutes. The fruit were allowed to ripen for 7 to 10 days after the hot water treatment, and then damaged areas of skin and mesocarp tissue were prepared for observation by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Heating-related injuries included rupturing the patterned cuticle and exocarp and exposing the underlying cells and hollow cavities (which varied in size and shape) randomly distributed within the mesocarp beneath the skin. Starch deposits still were present in the mesocarp parenchyma cells. The cell walls of damaged mesocarp parenchyma cells were convoluted and thickened in places. The injury suggested disruption of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

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R.J. Schnell, R.J. Knight, D.M. Harkins, and Gary Zill

The ability to eliminate zygotic seedlings from the polyembryonic mango (Mangifera indica L.) rootstock `Turpentine' by visual roguing was investigated. Four selected populations, A) randomly selected plants, B) plants selected as off-types, C) seedlings that were of `Turpentine' phenotype, and D) seeds where a single seedling emerged, were examined using electrophoretic analysis and five enzyme systems. Significant differences (χ2 = 39.63, P< 0.001) were found among the four categories, with 28% of the random, 66% of the off-type, 10% of the true-to-type, and 54% of the monoembryonic seedlings being zygotic. These data indicate that visual selection for trueness-to-type and roguing for off-types is useful in reducing the frequency of zygotic seedlings among `Turpentine' rootstock plants.

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R. Nunez-Elisea, M. L. Caldeira, and T. L. Davenport

Thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea) stimulates axillary bud break in some horticultural crops. We are exploring its ability to initiate bud growth in mango trees in order to manipulate vegetative and reproductive shoot initiation. Axillary buds on defoliated, decapitated shoots were treated in late October, 1989 (about two months before normal floral initiation), with 0, 125, or 1000 ppm TDZ. Although timing or percent of bud-break was unaffected by TDZ, the compound influenced growth expression. TDZ (125 ppm) produced morphologically typical panicles (mixed or purely floral), while at 1000 ppm purely floral panicles were produced which were abnormally compact (similar to panicles affected by mango malformation). Non-treated buds produced only vegetative shoots. Sprays of TDZ (25 to 200 ppm) on developing panicles produced morphological anomalies in panicles such as thickening of the central axis and secondary branches, increase in flower size, and sprouting of the most basal buds on the central axis. Effect during the vegetative flushing period will be discussed.

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Raymond J. Schnell and Robert J. Knight

Genetic relationships between commercial mango cultivars are often speculative and only the maternal parent is generally known. RAPD™ primers were used with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to provide markers useful in determining individual identity, family relationships, and linkage mapping analysis. In mango, 53 RAPD primers were screened for markers and 27 proved useful. Genomic DNA was isolated from 70 clones of mango maintained in the USDA germplasm collection. DNA from these clones was amplified with each of the 27 primers. Data were scored as the presence or absence of bands. Groupings of the clones using UPGMA based on Nei's genetic distance gave distinct clusters. RAPD clusters vs. clusters based on isozyme analysis are compared.

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T.M.M. Malundo, E.A. Baldwin, R.L. Shewfelt, H. Sisson, and G.O. Ware

Fruit flavor is a function of sensory perception of taste, aromatic and chemical feeling factor components in the mouth. The specific role of sugars and acids in potentiating flavor perception of volatile compounds and chemical feeling factors is not well known for many fruits. This study was conducted to determine the effects of selected levels of sugars and acids on perception of 3 taste (sweet, sour, bitter), 6 aromatic (banana, grassy, orange peel, peach, pine/turpentine, sweet potato), and 2 chemical feeling factor (astringent, biting) flavor notes in diluted, fresh mango homogenate using a trained descriptive panel. Perception of all flavor descriptors except sour were enhanced by increasing the sugar concentration. An increase in acid concentration enhanced perception of sweet, sour and biting notes while lowering perception of the astringent, peach and pine/turpentine notes. Brix-to-acid ratio (BAR) was found to be an effective chemical indicator for perception of sourness but was not effective for perception of sweetness. These results provide insight into optimum balances of sugars and acids as they influence mango flavor perception specifically in preparation of juice blends, selection of cultivars for specific fresh markets, or determination of optimum ripeness in the marketplace.