Science, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-eight mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cultivars were included for horticultural and molecular markers analyses. The cultivars were obtained from the Agricultural Research Center, Horticulture Research
Nader R. Abdelsalam, Hayssam M. Ali, Mohamed Z.M. Salem, Elsayed G. Ibrahem, and Mohamed S. Elshikh
T.M.M. Malundo, R.L. Shewfelt, G.O. Ware, and E.A. Baldwin
Information on important flavor components for fruit and vegetables is lacking and would be useful for breeders and molecular biologists. Effects of sugar and acid levels on mango (Mangifera indica L.) flavor perception were analyzed. Twelve treatments, identified using a constrained simplex lattice mixture design, were formulated by adding sugar (60%), citric acid (40%), and water to an equal volume of mango homogenate. Using 150-mm nonstructured line scales, a trained panel evaluated the treatments according to 11 flavor descriptors. Titratable acidity (TA), pH, and total soluble solids (TSS) were also determined. Acid concentration affected ratings for sweet, sour, peachy, pine/terpentine, astringent, and biting. Except for sour taste, all descriptors were affected by sugar content while increasing water increased intensities of all flavor notes. TA, pH, and TSS/TA correlated (P < 0.01) with and were useful predictors (r > 0.80) of sour taste and chemical feeling descriptors astringent and biting. TSS, however, was not a particularly good indicator of sweetness (r = 0.72) or any other descriptor except possibly peachy (r = 0.79). It is evident from this study that sugars and acids enhance human perception of specific flavor notes in mango, including aromatics.
A. Adato, D. Sharon, U. Lavi, J. Hillel, and S. Gazit
DNA fingerprint information was used for identification of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars for genetic relatedness analysis of20 mango cultivars and for genetic analysis of a family structure. Genomic DNA was extracted from young leaves, digested with Hind III or Dra I, and hybridized with 10 different DNA probes. Jeffreys' minisatellite probe 33.6 was the most useful, resulting in well-resolved bands representing highly polymorphic loci. Specific patterns were obtained for each cultivar. The probability of obtaining a similar pattern for two different cultivars was 9.4 × 10-6. Based on DNA fingerprint information, genetic distances between 20 mango cultivars were evaluated and an evolutionary tree was established. Analysis of DNA fingerprint band patterns of 12 progeny resulting from a cross between `Tommy Atkins' and `Keitt' mango revealed neither linked nor allelic bands. Application of the reported results for identification, genetic analyses, and mango breeding is discussed.
Details of mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem anatomy and formation of the bud union were observed in 4 combinations of 2 scions and 3 stocks chip budded at 5 stages of stock growth from first flush to 1 year old. ‘Haden’, ‘Saigon’, and ‘Turpentine’ stems of equivalent age and growth rate were indistinguishable anatomically. Four stages in formation of the bud union were: pre-callus, where 4 days after budding only a wound periderm was present; callus, where 8 days after budding proliferation from tissues mainly near the cambium resulted in firm attachment of the components; cambial bridge, where 12 days after budding cambial layers from stock and scion formed a bridge and vascular tissues were differentiated within 36-48 days; and, the healed union, where after 6-8 months several cylinders of new tissues were present and the lateral shift of the scion to align with the stock had begun.
A. M. Rhodes, Carl Campbell, Simon E. Malo, and S. G. Carmer
Variability among 40 cultivars of Mangifera indica L. and one specimen each from M. odorato Griff, and M. zeylanica Hook f. were measured and classified using the unweighted pair group method of cluster analysis of distance coefficients based on 73 characters. Neither M. odorata nor M. zeylanica showed a close overall similarity to any of the cultivars of M. indica. Most cultivars clustered into 1 of 4 major groups. One group contained the polyembryonic cultivars with oblong fruit common to Southeast Asia. Another group consisted of monoembryonic cultivars with roundish fruit common to India. A third group, intermediate in fruit shape, included cultivars from India and one from the West Indies. The final group involved several hybrids developed in Florida and Hawaii. This group, as a rule, has large fruit and is designated as the Sandersha-Haden complex. A tentative pedigree based on both reported parentage and distance coefficients is given for this group. A few cultivars from Indo-china, the West Indies, and Réunion did not show close enough affinity to be placed into any of the above groups.
Zhengke Zhang, Zhaoyin Gao, Min Li, Meijiao Hu, Hui Gao, Dongping Yang, and Bo Yang
The sensitivity of mango ( Mangifera indica L.) fruit to CI when exposed to temperature below 13 °C limits the use of refrigeration to extend its storage and shelf life ( Nair and Singh, 2003 ). CI symptoms of mango fruit are mainly manifested as
Simon A. Mng’omba and Elsa S. du Toit
area) on the graft success of Mangifera indica (mango), Persia americana (avocado), and Prunus persica (peach) fruit trees. We selected these three tree species because they are among the commonly grafted fruit trees in the tropics although peach
Keryl K. Jacobi and Don Gowanlock
Mature green `Kensington' mango fruit were submerged in hot water at 46C until the fruit center reached 45C and then held for 30 minutes. The fruit were allowed to ripen for 7 to 10 days after the hot water treatment, and then damaged areas of skin and mesocarp tissue were prepared for observation by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Heating-related injuries included rupturing the patterned cuticle and exocarp and exposing the underlying cells and hollow cavities (which varied in size and shape) randomly distributed within the mesocarp beneath the skin. Starch deposits still were present in the mesocarp parenchyma cells. The cell walls of damaged mesocarp parenchyma cells were convoluted and thickened in places. The injury suggested disruption of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.
R.J. Schnell, R.J. Knight, D.M. Harkins, and Gary Zill
The ability to eliminate zygotic seedlings from the polyembryonic mango (Mangifera indica L.) rootstock `Turpentine' by visual roguing was investigated. Four selected populations, A) randomly selected plants, B) plants selected as off-types, C) seedlings that were of `Turpentine' phenotype, and D) seeds where a single seedling emerged, were examined using electrophoretic analysis and five enzyme systems. Significant differences (χ2 = 39.63, P< 0.001) were found among the four categories, with 28% of the random, 66% of the off-type, 10% of the true-to-type, and 54% of the monoembryonic seedlings being zygotic. These data indicate that visual selection for trueness-to-type and roguing for off-types is useful in reducing the frequency of zygotic seedlings among `Turpentine' rootstock plants.
R. Nunez-Elisea, M. L. Caldeira, and T. L. Davenport
Thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea) stimulates axillary bud break in some horticultural crops. We are exploring its ability to initiate bud growth in mango trees in order to manipulate vegetative and reproductive shoot initiation. Axillary buds on defoliated, decapitated shoots were treated in late October, 1989 (about two months before normal floral initiation), with 0, 125, or 1000 ppm TDZ. Although timing or percent of bud-break was unaffected by TDZ, the compound influenced growth expression. TDZ (125 ppm) produced morphologically typical panicles (mixed or purely floral), while at 1000 ppm purely floral panicles were produced which were abnormally compact (similar to panicles affected by mango malformation). Non-treated buds produced only vegetative shoots. Sprays of TDZ (25 to 200 ppm) on developing panicles produced morphological anomalies in panicles such as thickening of the central axis and secondary branches, increase in flower size, and sprouting of the most basal buds on the central axis. Effect during the vegetative flushing period will be discussed.