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Landry Lockett, Thayne Montague, Cynthia McKenney, and Dick Auld

A survey instrument was designed to determine public opinion on water conservation, water conserving landscapes, the use of native plants in landscapes, home irrigation systems, and the performance of five Texas native plant species [pink evening primrose (Oenothera speciosa); prairie verbena (Verbena bipinnatifida); red yucca (Hesperaloe parviflora); ceniza (Leucophyllum frutescens); and ruellia (Ruellia nudiflora)] grown in low water use landscapes in the semiarid Southwestern United States. On six occasions during the 1999 growing season, participants viewed landscapes and participated in a survey. Survey data indicate that over 90% of respondents thought water conservation was important to the state of Texas. A majority of participants however, believed water conserving landscapes to be expensive to maintain and not aesthetically pleasing. The survey revealed 79% of participants would use native plants if native plants conserved water, and 86% of participants would use native plants if native plants were attractive. Chi-square approximations revealed participant's opinions regarding water conservation and home irrigation systems were influenced by education level and amount of time they participated in weekly horticulture activities. In an open-ended question, participants indicated flowers and healthy leaves were characteristics indicating a plant was performing well. Throughout the year, species in flower received higher ratings than nonflowering species.

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Chris A. Martin, Sean A. Whitcomb, and Jean C. Stutz

, Arizona: Leucophyllum frutescens var. green cloud (Texas sage) and Nerium oleander ‘Sister Agnus’ (oleander). We hypothesized that frequent shearing would reduce root growth, mycorrhizal fungi colonization, and soil respiration of oleander and Texas

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N.K Lownds, M.G. White, and R.D. Berghage

Previous work has shown that container grown landscape plants use, and likely need, much less water than is typically applied. Therefore, studies were conducted to quantify the relationships between water loss and water stress responses using several drought tolerant (Cassia corymbosa, Leucophyllum frutescens, Salvia greggii) and traditional landscape plants (Euonymus japonicus, Pyracantha coccinea). Water stress was induced by withholding water and water loss measured gravimetrically. The shape of the water loss curve was similar for all species being, Y = a + bx + cx2 (r2 > 0.95). The rate of ethylene production began to increase 24 hr after irrigation, reaching a maximum 36-48 hr after irrigation and then decreasing. Maximum ethylene production occured at 35-47% water loss irrespective of species or rate of water loss. Stress symptoms (wilting leaf discoloration and abscission) followed a similar pattern. The potential for monitoring gravimetric water loss to schedule container irrigation will be discussed.

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E.C. Boehm, T.D. Davis, and J.O. Kuti

Relative water usage of four species of container-grown woody ornamental shrubs (Buxus japonica (Japenese boxwood), Leucophyllum frutescens (Texas sage), Ligustrum japonica (ligustrum) and Pittosporum tobira wheeleri (dwarf) pittosporurm)), normally used for home landscaping in south Texas, were evaluated by comparing water consumption and frequency of watering with growth rates and horticultural quality after six months growth in containers. Growth rates were determined by the difference in plant height and leaf area from the control unwatered plants and were used to characterize the suitability of ornamental shrubs for xeric landscapes. While frequency of watering had no significant effects on plant height, only ligustrum and dwarf pittosporum plants watered on weekly basis showed positive change in leaf area. There was considerable leaf regrowth in Texas sage plants after initial leaf loss. Of all the shrubs tested, dwarf pittosporum plants watered biweekly used less water to maintain their horticultural quality.

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N.K Lownds, M.G. White, and R.D. Berghage

Previous work has shown that container grown landscape plants use, and likely need, much less water than is typically applied. Therefore, studies were conducted to quantify the relationships between water loss and water stress responses using several drought tolerant (Cassia corymbosa, Leucophyllum frutescens, Salvia greggii) and traditional landscape plants (Euonymus japonicus, Pyracantha coccinea). Water stress was induced by withholding water and water loss measured gravimetrically. The shape of the water loss curve was similar for all species being, Y = a + bx + cx2 (r2 > 0.95). The rate of ethylene production began to increase 24 hr after irrigation, reaching a maximum 36-48 hr after irrigation and then decreasing. Maximum ethylene production occured at 35-47% water loss irrespective of species or rate of water loss. Stress symptoms (wilting leaf discoloration and abscission) followed a similar pattern. The potential for monitoring gravimetric water loss to schedule container irrigation will be discussed.

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Nickolee Zollinger, Richard Koenig, Teresa Cerny-Koenig, and Roger Kjelgren

glands or salt hairs, or dropping older leaves in which salts have accumulated ( Greenway and Munns, 1980 ; Munns, 2002 ). Many of these species, including Texas sage ( Leucophyllum frutescens ) and iceplant ( Delosperma ), grow more vigorously in saline

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S.M. Scheiber, E.F. Gilman, D.R. Sandrock, M. Paz, C. Wiese, and Meghan M. Brennan

hill manzanita ( Arctostaphylos densiflora ) and texas sage ( Leucophyllum frutescens )] and two introduced [vanhoutte spirea ( Spiraea vanhouteii ) and laurustinus ( Viburnum tinus )] species with neither native nor nonnative outperforming the other

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Youping Sun, Ji Jhong Chen, Haifeng Xing, Asmita Paudel, Genhua Niu, and Matthew Chappell

fasciculatum (early jessamine), Eugenia myrtifolia (syn. Syzygium paniculatum ) (brush cherry), Leptospermum scoparium (manuka), Leucophyllum frutescens (Texas sage), Ruttya fruticosa (jammy mouth), and Viburnum lucidum (arrow wood) irrigated with

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Jennifer L. Parke, Neelam R. Redekar, Joyce L. Eberhart, and Fumiaki Funahashi

. Plants infested with Phytophthora species included bougainvillea ( Bougainvillea sp.), ‘Star of Madeira’ echium ( Echium fastuosum ), gardenia ( Gardenia veitchii ), ‘Heavenly Cloud’ sage ( Leucophyllum frutescens ), mexican cardinal flower ( Lobelia