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Beiquan Mou and Yong-Biao Liu

Leafminer (Liriomyza langei Frick) is a major insect pest of many important agricultural crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The goals of this study were to evaluate lettuce genotypes for resistance to leafminer and to estimate heritabilities of three leafminer-resistant traits. Forty-six lettuce genotypes were evaluated in two tests in insect cages. Wild species (Lactuca serriola L., Lactuca saligna L., and Lactuca virosa L.) had significantly fewer leafminer stings than cultivated lettuce (L. sativa) in both tests. PI 509525 (L. saligna) had few leafminer stings and no flies emerged. Leaf (leaf and romaine) lettuce also showed significantly less stings than head (crisphead and butterhead) types, while differences between leaf and romaine lettuces, and between crisphead and butterhead types were nonsignificant. Broad-sense heritability for number of stings per unit leaf area was relatively high, averaging 65% over the two tests. Heritabilities for egg-hatching period and flies per plant were 10% and 15%, respectively. Stings per unit leaf area from the two tests were highly correlated (r = 0.828), suggesting that resistance was stable over different plant ages and against different pressures of leafminer. These results suggest that genetic improvement of cultivated lettuce for leafminer resistance is feasible.

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Beiquan Mou and Yong-Biao Liu

Leafminer (Liriomyza spp.) is a major insect pest of many important agricultural crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The goals of this study were to evaluate lettuce genotypes for resistance to leafminers and to estimate the heritabilities of leafminer-resistant traits in the field, to examine the association among different resistant traits, and to study the mechanism of leafminer resistance in lettuce. Seventy-eight lettuce accessions and 232 F2 plants of crosses were evaluated for leafminer stings and the production of pupae and flies in the field in 2001 and 2002, and resistant genotypes were subjected to no-choice test. Wild species (Lactuca serriola L., L. saligna L., and L. virosa L.) had significantly fewer stings than cultivated lettuces. Among cultivated lettuces, sting densities were lowest on leaf lettuce and highest on romaine types. The sting results from the field were highly correlated with the results from insect cages (r = 0.770 and 0.756 for 2001 and 2002 tests, respectively), suggesting that a cage test can be used to screen for resistance in the field. Broad-sense heritability estimates for stings per unit leaf area in the field were 81.6% and 67.4% for 2001 and 2002 tests, respectively. The number of pupae produced per plant or per leaf was moderately correlated with sting density but was not correlated with leaf weight. Results suggest that both antixenosis and antibiosis exist in lettuce germplasm and resistant genotypes from choice tests remain resistant under no-choice conditions. These findings suggest that genetic improvement of cultivated lettuce for leafminer resistance is feasible.

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Ivan Simko and Jinguo Hu

-type cultivars, 12 leaf-type cultivars, 12 romaine-type cultivars, and one latin-type cultivar. In addition to cultivated lettuce, three accessions each of two wild-type species Lactuca serriola and Lactuca saligna were also included in the analysis. The 60

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James D. McCreight and Yong-Biao Liu

Lactuca serriola accession PI 491093 and L. virosa accession PI 274378. Materials and Methods This work was done using controlled infestations in greenhouses (13 experiments) and field cages (one experiment) and natural infestations in open fields (two

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Renée L. Eriksen, Caleb Knepper, Michael D. Cahn, and Beiquan Mou

largely centered on root qualities. Jackson (1995) reported differences in root architecture in cultivated L. sativa cv. Salinas and its wild progenitor ( Kesseli et al., 1991 ) Lactuca serriola . Cultivated L. sativa tends to produce more lateral

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Beiquan Mou and Carolee Bull

Corky root is a major disease of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) observed in many production areas of the world. The pathogen Sphingomonas suberifaciens (van Bruggen et al.) Yabuuchi et al. varies with regard to virulence, and several strains have been isolated that can cause disease symptoms even on cultivars that have the only known resistance gene, cor. It is desirable to find new sources of resistance to diversify the genetic basis of the resistance and to confer resistance against isolates that are not adequately controlled by cor. More than 1000 plant introduction lines and cultivars were screened in assays conducted in the greenhouse, growth chamber, and field. Three L. serriola L. lines (PI 491239, PI 491096, and PI 491110) and a L. virosa L. line (PI 273597c) were highly resistant to corky root in all tests. Disease severity ratings in the field were correlated with the ratings in the greenhouse (r = 0.722) and in the growth chamber (r = 0.650). Significant genotype × environment interactions were observed for corky root severity. None of the four resistant lines had the two molecular markers closely linked to the cor allele. The information on disease resistance for these genotypes will be useful in future breeding work.

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Beiquan Mou

There is increasing medical evidence for the health benefits derived from dietary intake of carotenoid antioxidants, such as β-carotene and lutein. Enhancing the nutritional levels of vegetables would improve the nutrient intake without requiring an increase in consumption. A breeding program to improve the nutritional quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) must start with an assessment of the existing genetic variation. To assess the genetic variability in carotenoid contents, 52 genotypes including crisphead, leaf, romaine, butterhead, primitive, Latin, and stem lettuces, and wild species were planted in the field in Salinas, Calif., in the Summer and Fall of 2003 with four replications. Duplicate samples from each plot were analyzed for chlorophyll (a and b), β-carotene, and lutein concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Wild accessions (L. serriola L., L. saligna L., L. virosa L., and primitive form) had higher β-carotene and lutein concentrations than cultivated lettuces, mainly due to the lower moisture content of wild lettuces. Among major types of cultivated lettuce, carotenoid concentration followed the order of: green leaf or romaine > red leaf > butterhead > crisphead. There was significant genetic variation in carotenoid concentration within each of these lettuce types. Crisphead lettuce accumulated more lutein than β-carotene, while other lettuce types had more β-carotene than lutein. Carotenoid concentration was higher in summer than in the fall, but was not affected by the position of the plant on the raised bed. Beta-carotene and lutein concentrations were highly correlated, suggesting that their levels could be enhanced simultaneously. Beta-carotene and lutein concentrations were both highly correlated with chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll concentrations, suggesting that carotenoid content could be selected indirectly through chlorophyll or color measurement. These results suggest that genetic improvement of carotenoid levels in lettuce is feasible.

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Beiquan Mou* and Yong-Biao Liu

Leafminer (Liriomyza spp.) is a major insect pest of many important agricultural crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The goals of this study were to evaluate lettuce genotypes for resistance to leafminers and to estimate the heritabilities of leafminer-resistant traits in the field, to examine the association among different resistant traits, and to study the mechanism of leafminer resistance in lettuce. Seventy-eight lettuce accessions and 232 F2 plants of crosses were evaluated for leafminer stings and the production of pupae and flies in the field in 2001 and 2002, and resistant genotypes were subjected to no-choice test. Wild species (Lactuca serriola L., L. saligna L., and L. virosa L.) had significantly fewer stings than cultivated lettuces. Among cultivated lettuces, sting densities were lowest on leaf lettuce and highest on romaine types. The sting results from the field were highly correlated with the results from insect cages (r = 0.770 and 0.756 for 2001 and 2002 tests, respectively), suggesting that a cage test can be used to screen for resistance in the field. Broad-sense heritability estimates for stings per unit leaf area in the field were 81.6% and 67.4% for 2001 and 2002 tests, respectively. The number of pupae produced per plant or per leaf was moderately correlated with sting density but was not correlated with leaf weight. Results suggest that both antixenosis and antibiosis exist in lettuce germplasm and resistant genotypes from choice tests remain resistant under no-choice conditions. These findings suggest that genetic improvement of cultivated lettuce for leafminer resistance is feasible.

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James D. McCreight

Lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley) is a recent insect pest to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production in the United States. The single dominant gene, Nr, conditions resistance to the lettuce aphid in Lactuca virosa accession IVT280 from The Netherlands and is available in a limited number of commercial lettuce cultivars. New and genetically unique sources of resistance are sought to broaden the genetic base for resistance to the lettuce aphid. About 1200 lettuce PI lines were evaluated for resistance to lettuce aphid in greenhouse tests using a strain of lettuce aphid obtained from commercial lettuce in Salinas Valley, Calif. In 2002, plants were individually infested with five 24-hour nymphs per plant (controlled protocol), and the numbers of aphids per plant were counted 10–14 days post-infestation (dpi). Beginning in 2003, plants were mass-infested (mass protocol) with nymphs and alates of various ages and numbers. Using the mass protocol, the number of aphids per plant 10–14 dpi were estimated and categorized using a 1–5 scale where 1 = 0 aphids per plant, 2 = 1–10 aphids per plant, 3 = 11–20 aphids per plant, 4 = 21–30 aphids per plant, and 5 = >30 aphids per plant. `Salinas' and `Barcelona' were included as susceptible and resistant controls, respectively. Most of the accessions were susceptible. A few accessions had a few plants with very low numbers of aphids after repeated infestation, but their progeny were susceptible. Two accessions were highly resistant: PI 491093, a Lactuca serriola accession from Turkey, and PI 274378, a L. virosa accession from France. Inheritance of resistance in these two accessions and their allelism to Nr remains to be determined.

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Xi Wang, Genhua Niu, Mengmeng Gu, Paul A. Baumann, and Joseph Masabni

’ and S. alba ‘IdaGold’ seed meal at 2,000 kg·ha −1 greatly reduced weed seedling emergence and biomass of Italian ryegrass ( Lolium perenne spp. multiflorum ), prickly lettuce ( Lactuca serriola ), redroot pigweed and wild oat ( Avena fatua