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Azusa Sato, Hiroshi Okubo, and Kazuyuki Saitou

The aim of this study was to investigate physiological and biochemical mechanisms of shoot elongation after cold period in hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis L. cv. Delft Blue). Hyacinth shoot rapidly elongated during hydro-culture period in cooled bulbs, but not in non-cooled bulbs. Alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1.) is a key enzyme involved in starch hydrolysis. Alpha-amylase activity increased during the cold storage period and was low during rapid shoot elongation in hyacinth. In the non-cooled bulbs, its activity remained at the similar level. Sucrose content increased during the cold storage period in the shoot, but not in the scales. We, for the first time, isolated cDNA for cold-responsive alpha-amylase gene (HoAmy1A, accession No. AB198975) from hyacinth, and presented that HoAmy1A expression increased in the scale during the cold storage period, but the level was very low during shoot elongation. We also found that promoter region of HoAmy1A contained CArG element, which is related to the response to low temperature. In tulip (Tulipa genesriana L.), the most studied bulbous plant, dramatic increase in alpha-amylase activity and translocation of sugars from the scales to shoot occurred during the growth stage, following cold treatment (Komiyama et al., 1997; Lambrechts et al., 1994). Our results suggest that there are two types (tulip and hyacinth types) of sprouting mechanisms in bulbous plants.

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Todd J. Cavins and John M. Dole

Hyacinthoides hispanica (Mill.) Roth., Hyacinthus orientalis L. `Gypsy Queen', Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. `Music Hall', N. pseudonarcissus `Tahiti', Tulipa gesneriana L. `Couleur Cardinal', and T. gesneriana `White Emperor' bulbs were given 0 or 6 weeks of preplant 5 °C cold treatment and planted 15, 30, or 45 cm deep into raised ground beds under 0%, 30%, or 60% shade. Plant growth was monitored for 2 years after planting. Preplant 5 °C cold pretreatment reduced percentage of Tulipa `White Emperor' bulbs that flowered but did not affect the percentage of bulbs that flowered for the other species. Cold pretreatment also delayed anthesis in one or both years for all cultivars except Hyacinthoides hispanica. The greatest percentage of bulbs flowered when planted 15 cm deep. The 45-cm planting depth reduced bulb flowering percentage or eliminated plant emergence. Increasing planting depth increased days to anthesis for all cultivars in both years. Increasing shade increased stem lengths in year 2 for all cultivars except Hyacinthoides hispanica, but did not influence percentage of bulbs flowering for any cultivars. For all cultivars perennialization was low regardless of treatment as less than 30% of bulbs survived to the 2nd year.

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Alan W. Meerow, Sven E. Svenson, and Michael E. Kane

DCPTA is a synthetically produced tertiary amine bioregulator with potential for increasing crop productivity at high light intensities. DCPTA reduces the number of days from planting to maturity in various potted ornamental crops, including `Fortune' daffodil (Narcissus L.), `Sonora' tulip (Tulipa L.), and `Jan Bos' hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis L.). Our objective was to examine how light intensity and DCPTA application influence growth and flowering of amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybridum Hort.). Flowering size bulbs of a micropropagated amaryllis clone were treated with 30 μm or no DCPTA and grown in full sun or 63% shade for 1 year. Number of scapes produced, flowers per scape, change in bulb fresh weight, number of bulblets produced, and bulblet weight were recorded and analyzed. There were no significant differences in days to first flowering or in number of flowers produced per scape among the treatments. DCPTA application at the recommended rate significantly reduced number of emergent inflorescences and the bulb biomass increase of hybrid amaryllis. Additionally, the interaction between light level and DCPTA appeared weak for amaryllis, and was only slightly significant relative to bulblet production. Chemical name used: 2-(3,4-dichlorophenoxy)triethylamine (DCPTA).

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Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, Ingram McCall, and John M. Dole

Preplant bulb soaks of flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole; foliar sprays of ethephon and flurprimidol; and substrate drenches of flurprimidol were compared for height control of `Anna Marie' hyacinths (Hyacinthus orientalis). Preplant bulb soak concentrations of flurprimidol and paclobutrazol were from 25 to 400 mg·L-1, and uniconazole from 5 to 80 mg·L-1. Height control was evaluated at anthesis and 11 days later under postharvest conditions. Ethephon (250 to 2000 mg·L-1) and flurprimidol (5 to 80 mg·L-1) foliar sprays were ineffective. Flurprimidol (0.25 to 4 mg/pot) drenches had no effect during forcing, but controlled postharvest height at concentrations ≥0.25 mg/pot a.i. with at least 4% shorter plants than the untreated control. Preplant bulb soaks resulted in height control with flurprimidol ≥25 mg·L-1, paclobutrazol ≥100 mg·L-1, and uniconazole ≥40 mg·L-1; having at least 9%, 6%, and 19%, respectively, shorter plants than the untreated control. Based on our results, flurprimidol preplant bulb soaks have a greater efficacy than either uniconazole or paclobutrazol. Preplant PGR soaks are a cost-effective method of controlling plant height of hyacinths because of the limited amount of chemical required to treat a large quantity of bulbs.

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Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, and Ingram McCall

Eight experiments were conducted to develop height control protocols for greenhouse-forced hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) bulbs. `Pink Pearl' hyacinth bulbs were treated with flurprimidol preplant bulb soaks to determine optimal timing of treatment, soak duration, quantity of bulbs that could be treated before the solution lost efficacy, bulb location of solution uptake, and if higher concentrations of flurprimidol can be used to overcome stretch that occurs with extended cold treatment. No difference in height control occurred when bulbs were soaked in flurprimidol the day of, 1 day before, or 7 days before potting; therefore, growers can treat bulbs up to 1 week before potting with no difference in height control. All preplant bulb soak durations of 1, 5, 10, 20, or 40 min controlled plant height. Any soak durations ≥1.3 min resulted in similar height control, which would provide growers with a flexible time frame of 2 to 40 min in which to soak the bulbs. When 1 L of 20 mg·L-1 flurprimidol solution was used repeatedly over 20 batches of five bulbs, solution efficacy was similar from the first batch to the last batch, indicating the soak solution of flurprimidol can be used repeatedly without loss of efficacy. Soak solution temperature was also tested to determine its effect on flurprimidol and paclobutrazol uptake. Temperature of the soak solution (8, 16, or 24 °C) had no effect on flurprimidol and only at a temperature of 8 °C was the efficacy of paclobutrazol lower. Postharvest heights of `Pink Pearl' hyacinths were similar whether only the top, bottom, or the entire bulb was soaked. Control provided by flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, or uniconazole preplant bulb soaks varied among the three hyacinth cultivars Delft Blue, Jan Bos, and Pink Pearl, so growers will have to conduct their own trials to determine optimal cultivar response to preplant bulb soaks. Also, `Pacino' sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) were treated with residual soak solution of flurprimidol to determine if substrate drenches could be used as a disposal method. Fresh and residual solutions of flurprimidol (1.18, 2.37, or 4.73 mg/pot a.i.) applied to `Pacino' sunflowers were similar in their efficacy of controlling height, which would enable growers to avoid disposal problems of residual soak solutions.

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Shawn D. Lyons, William B. Miller, H. Christian Wien, and Neil S. Mattson

), hyacinth ( Hyacinthus orientalis ), caladium ( Caladium bicolor ), narcissus ( Narcissus pseudonarcissus ), and calla lily ( Zantedeschia aethiopica ) when applied as substrate drenches ( Beckman and Lukens, 1997 ; Miller, 2016 ; Tjia, 1987 ; Whipker et

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Matthew G. Blanchard and Erik S. Runkle

commonly used to apply growth-regulating chemicals, including a foliar spray, a substrate drench, or a combination of both (i.e., sprench) ( Barrett, 1999 ). For bulbous crops, such as hyacinth ( Hyacinthus orientalis ) or ‘Star Gazer’ oriental lily

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Anna Kapczyńska and Małgorzata Malik

growth regulators may have been a more effective way to control growth of ‘Ronina’. Krug et al. (2006b) and Barnes et al. (2013) reported that different cultivars of hyacinth ( Hyacinthus orientalis ) and lily ( Lilium lancifolium ) respond

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William B. Miller, Neil S. Mattson, Xiaorong Xie, Danghui Xu, Christopher J. Currey, Kasey L. Clemens, Roberto G. Lopez, Michael Olrich, and Erik S. Runkle

technique for height control in Hyacinthus orientalis L. and Narcissus with suggested concentrations of 500 to 2000 mg·L −1 depending on the cultivar, length of cooling, and forcing time ( De Hertogh, 1996 ). Substrate drenches of many PGRs provide more

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Michelle M. Wisdom, Michael D. Richardson, Douglas E. Karcher, Donald C. Steinkraus, and Garry V. McDonald

in bermudagrass included the crocuses (‘Golden Yellow’, ‘Ruby Giant’, and ‘Flower Record’), the spring snowflake, and several daffodil entries (‘Baby Moon’, ‘Rip Van Winkle’, and ‘Tete-a-Tete’). Several entries, including Hyacinthus orientalis L