The length of time required for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) colonization, the effect of root age, and the position of VAM inoculum with respect to the root system were tested on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Colonization of onion by Glomus deserticola began 3 days after inoculation and reached 50% of the total root length after 21 days. Colonization by G. mosseae and G. intraradices began after 12 days and attained 15% and 37%, respectively, after 21 days. In cotton, colonization with G. deserticola and G. intraradices began 12 days following inoculation and increased to 20% and 18%, respectively, after 21 days. Colonization of cotton by G. mosseae was poor. In pepper, colonization with G. deserticola, G. mosseae, and G. intraradices began 3, 6, and 6 days after inoculation and, after 21 days, reached 60%, 13%, and 10%, respectively. In a second experiment, rapid colonization by G. deserticola took place in 3-day-old onion seedlings and increased to 51% 3 days after inoculation. Ten- and 17-day-old seedlings were far less responsive to VAM colonization but became highly infected at 30 days when new roots were produced. In a third experiment, inoculum placement 3 cm below seeds at planting in the field was the most effective for promoting colonization of cotton and onion by VAM. In fumigated field soil, mycorrhizae increased cotton growth an average of 28% when inoculum was applied below seeds compared to one- or two-sided band applications. Even in nonfumigated field soil, inoculum placed 3 cm below the seed and inoculum placed in a band at one side 2 weeks after planting significantly increased cotton growth. In onion, mycorrhizal inoculation improved growth in fumigated soil when it was placed below the seed, but did not stimulate growth in nonfumigated soil.
U. Afek, E. Rinaldelli, J.A. Menge, E.L.V. Johnson, and E. Pond
Mary E. Mangrich and Mikal E. Saltveit
Seeds of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. `Clemson Spineless' (syn. Hibiscus esculentus L.)], rice (Oryza sativa L.), and wheat (Triticum sativum (L.) Lam.) were germinated and grown at 25 °C until their radicles reached 10 mm in length. They were then exposed to chilling temperatures for 0 to 5 days followed by 3 days at 25 °C. Radicle length was measured periodically and inhibition of elongation was used as an indicator of the severity of chilling injury. Exposure to chilling reduced radicle elongation in all species except chilling insensitive wheat. When seedlings were heat-shocked at 45 °C for 1 to 12 min before being chilled, radicles of the chilling sensitive okra, kenaf, cotton, and rice seedlings elongated more than seedlings not heat-shocked before chilling. The method of heat-shock application and the stringency (i.e., time× temperature) of the heat-shock and chilling treatments all affected the response of the tissue. In comparison to nonheat-shocked wheat seedlings, the radicles of chilling insensitive wheat seedlings did not elongate more than seedlings in which the heat shocks were applied before chilling. A brief heat shock ameliorates chilling injury in these chilling sensitive species.
T.G. Boucounis, T. Whitwell, and J.E. Toler
Ten crops were evaluated for potential use as field bioassay species for cinmethylin and chlorimuron application rates in two soil types. Cinmethylin injured sweet corn (Zea mays L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] at concentrations as low as 0.28 kg·ha-1 on either soil type, while broadleaf crops were tolerant. Chlorimuron injured sweet corn, grain sorghum, radish (Raphanus sativus L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and watermelon [Citrullis lanatus (Thunb.) Mansf.] at rates ≥ 2.5 g·ha-1, and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) at rates ≥ 5.0 g·ha-1 on a Dothan sand. In a Congaree silt loam, chlorimuron injured cucumber at rates ≥ 5.0 g·ha-1, sweet corn, watermelon, and squash at rates ≥ 10 g·ha-1, and grain sorghum, radish, and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) at rates ≥ 20 g·ha-1. Soybean and snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were tolerant to chlorimuron in both soil types. Cinmethylin activity was not altered by soil type, but with chlorimuron greater crop injury was observed in the Dothan sand than in the Congaree silt loam. Sweet corn and grain sorghum were the most sensitive indicator species to cinmethylin and cucumber was the most sensitive to chlorimuron in both soils. Plant emergence and population alone are not valid indicators for crop tolerance to herbicides. Quantitative measurements such as shoot dry weight were more indicative of crop susceptibility to chlorimuron than plant populations. Chemical names used: exo -1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-2 -[(2-methylphenyl) methoxy]-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (cinmethylin); 2-[[[[(4-chloro-6-methoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)amino] carbonyl]amino] sulfonyl]benzoic acid (chlorimuron).
Leli Li, Shutian Tao, Huangwei Zhang, Weijian Huang, Jim M. Dunwell, and Meng Li
have been cloned from many species, including poplar [ Populus ( Chen et al., 2000 )], arabidopsis ( Do et al., 2007 ), cotton [ Gossypium hirsutum ( Ni et al., 2010 )], Neosinocalamus affinis ( Wu et al., 2012 ), and Citrus maxima ( Xu et al
Chang-chi Chu*, Kai Umeda, Tian-Ye Chen, Alvin M. Simmons, and Thomas H. Henneberry
Insect traps are vital component of many entomological programs for detection and monitoring of insect populations. We equipped yellow (YC), blue (BC) sticky card (BC) with 530 nm lime green (LED-YC) and 470 nm blue (LED-BC) light-emitting diodes, respectively that increased trap catches of several insect pests. The LED-YC traps caught 1.3, 1.4, 1.8, and 4.8 times more adult greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B, cotton aphids Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and fungus gnats Bradysia coprophila (Lintner), respectively, compared with standard YC traps. The LED-YC traps did not catch more Eretmocerus spp. than the standard YC traps. Eretmocerus spp. are important B. tabaci parasitoids used in greenhouse biological control programs. For whitefly control in greenhouse the 530 nm lime green LED equipped plastic cup trap designed by Chu et al. (2003) is the better choice than LED-YC trap because it catches few Eretmocerus spp. and Encarsia spp. whitefly parasitoids released for B. tabaci nymph control. The LED-BC traps caught 2.0-2.5 times more adult western flower thrips Franklinella occidentalis (Pergande) compared with the standard BC traps.
Kathryn E. Fine, Janet C. Cole, and Chad J. Penn
Nitrogen (N) release rate from organic materials through mineralization is affected by the organic material and environmental conditions. Determining rates of mineralization for canola (Brassica rapa L.) meal and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.) meal with or without soapstock (a waste byproduct of seed oil extraction) will establish appropriate application rates for consumers. Canola meal, cottonseed meal, cottonseed meal with soapstock, or no treatment (control) was incorporated at a rate of 4.9 g·m−2 N into three loam soils. Experimental units were incubated for 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, or 60 days while maintaining moisture at 60% water-holding capacity and then analyzed for NH4-N and NO3-N, then plant available N was calculated as NH4-N+NO3-N. Ammonium increased with each seed meal amendment during the first 14 days of incubation and then decreased. Nitrate increased in seed meal treatments during the first 14 days of incubation and then continued to increase as NH4-N ions declined. Canola meal and cottonseed meal with or without soapstock increase plant-available soil N.
S. Bekal and J.O. Becker
Recently, sting nematodes were discovered associated with dying turfgrass in several golf courses in Coachella Valley, Calif. Based on their morphology and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA restriction pattern, the pests were identified as Belonolaimus longicaudatus Rau. This study was undertaken to determine the host status of 60 different plant species and cultivars for a California population of B. longicaudatus. The host range tests were conducted under greenhouse conditions at 25 ± 2 °C and ambient light. At the second-leaf stage, each pot was infested with 55 ± 12 adults or fourth-stage juveniles per 150 g of blow sand. The population densities determined after 7 weeks of incubation qualified >80% of the plants tested as good hosts with a reproduction factor (Rf = Pf/Pi) > 4. The majority of those were grasses, although reproduction was best on Gossypium hirsutum L. with Rf = 58.6. While Capsicum annuum L., Medicago sativa L., Arachis hypogaea L., Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm., Cucumis sativus L., and Daucus carota L. were less suitable host plants with Rf < 4, only Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, Citrullus lanatus Thunb., and Nicotiana tabacum L. were nonhosts among the tested species. This sting nematode population had a high reproductive fitness on a majority of species tested and must be considered a major threat for most agricultural and horticultural crops grown in sandy soils.
Russell W. Wallace* and Harold W. Kaufman
Over 5 million acres of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are grown annually on the Texas High Plains, providing important resources to local, state and national economies. In recent years, growers have shown interest in farm diversification in order to increase profits. After determining a market, Agri-Gold, Inc. (Olton, Texas; population 2100) successfully diversified from cotton farming by starting with 30 acres of land and 7 canna lily (Canna ×generalis) varieties, but has now grown to produce 500 acres of cannas, 350 acres of irises (Iris sp.) and 100 acres of daylilies (Hemerocallis sp.). Agri-Gold annually markets 75 varieties of cannas, and over 90 iris and 150 daylily varieties while providing important employment opportunities to 50 full-time personnel and 150 part-time seasonal laborers. Crops are grown and marketed for their reproductive structures (rhizomes, bulbs, and crowns) and sold to retail chains throughout the United States. Warm, dry, sunny days and cool nights provide a quality environment for the reproductive growth of these crops. The arid climate and well-drained soils suppress diseases that may occasionally attack, and there are few natural insects that feed on the roots and foliage. Environmentally friendly products such as composted manure (locally produced) and biologicals, as well as integrated pest management (IPM) strategies are routinely included in field management and production decisions. Recent cooperative research efforts between Agri-Gold and Texas Cooperative Extension have evaluated herbicides for control of yellow (Cyperus esculentus L.) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.), as well as biological treatments for improved root growth and control of winter storage rots.
Francisca López-Granados, M. Teresa Gómez-Casero, José M. Peña-Barragán, Montserrat Jurado-Expósito, and Luis García-Torres
In Spain, water for agricultural use represents about 85% of the total water demand, and irrigated crop production constitutes a major contribution to the country's economy. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the potential of multispectral reflectance and seven vegetation indices in the visible and near-infrared spectral range for discriminating and classifying bare soil and several horticultural irrigated crops at different dates. This is the first step of a broader project with the overall goal of using satellite imagery with high spatial and multispectral resolutions for mapping irrigated crops to improve agricultural water use. On-ground reflectance data of bare soil and annual herbaceous crops [garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), bean (Vicia faba), maize (Zea mays), potato (Solanum tuberosum), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), melon (Cucumis melo), watermelon (Citrillus lanatus), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)], perennial herbaceous crops [alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)], deciduous trees [plum (Prunus spp.)], and non-deciduous trees [citrus (Citrus spp.) and olive (Olea europaea)] were collected using a handheld field spectroradiometer in spring, early summer, and late summer. Three classification methods were applied to discriminate differences in reflectance between the different crops and bare soil: stepwise discriminant analysis, and two artificial neural networks: multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function. On any of the sampling dates, the highest degree of accuracy was achieved with the MLP neural network, showing 89.8%, 91.1%, and 96.4% correct classification in spring, early summer, and late summer, respectively. The classification matrix from the MLP model using cross-validation showed that most crops discriminated in spring and late summer were 100% classifiable. For future works, we would recommend acquiring two multispectral satellite images taken in spring and late summer for monitoring and mapping these irrigated crops, thus avoiding costly field surveys.
Gilbert Miller and Jeremy Greene
Intercropping of seedless watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.) Matsum. & Nak.] and cotton [Gossypium hirsutum (L.)] in the eastern geographical area of South Carolina requires changes in normal crop-management programs but has the potential to improve grower profits compared with typical production of each crop separately. The alteration and timing of several normal crop-production practices for both crops can present challenges and must be well-defined for successful intercropping of watermelon and cotton in the region. Notable adjustments in production for watermelon are delayed planting date, reduced row spacing and bed width, and modification of herbicide applications. Significant changes in normal cotton production also include modification of herbicide applications, but additional considerations, such as temporal limits on side-dressed fertilizer and insecticide applications, are needed because of the raised beds and plasticulture used for watermelons and also because of labeling restrictions for pesticides across crops. Research was conducted to 1) identify modifications in standard crop-management procedures for watermelon and cotton intercropping; and 2) determine the feasibility and profitability of intercropping the crops. Although there was a slight numerical reduction in intercropped watermelon yield each year, there were no significant differences in total watermelon yield between intercropping and watermelon monoculture in any of the years. There were also no significant differences in watermelon fruit quality parameters (size, brix, hard seed, hollow heart) in any of the years. Intercropped cotton yield was significantly less than monoculture cotton yields in each of the three years. The net income from intercropping in each year was slightly less than the net income from watermelon monoculture.