The effects of the interaction between the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenk and Smith and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood on growth and nutrition of micropropagated `Grand Naine' banana (Musa AAA) were studied under greenhouse conditions. Inoculation with G. intraradices significantly increased growth of plants in relation to nonmycorrhizal plants and was more effective than P fertilization in promoting plant development. Mycorrhizal colonization did not affect nematode buildup in the roots, although plants with the nematode and mycorrhiza were more galled. Meloidogyne javanica had no effect on the percentage of root colonization in mycorrhiza-inoculated plants. No element deficiency was detected by foliar analysis. All elements were within sufficiency levels for banana with exception of N, which was low. Potassium levels were lower in mycorrhizal plants, while Ca and Mg levels were higher with mycorrhiza than without, with or without the nematode. Early inoculation with G. intraradices appears to favor growth of banana plants by enhancing plant nutrition.
Jorge Pinochet, Carolina Fernández, María de Carmen Jaizme, and Pedro Tenoury
Alejandro Alarcon*, Frederick T. Davies, David Wm. Reed, Robin L. Autenrieth, and David A. Zuberer
Arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF) have been used in phytoremediation and can increase tolerance and growth of plants in contaminated environments. However, little is known about the influence AMF on plant growth to organic contaminants in soils. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the response of seedlings of annual ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) var. Passerel Plus inoculated with Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith in soil contaminated with sweet Arabian median crude oil. Inoculated (AMF) and non-inoculated (Non-AMF) plants were established in an pasteurized and artificially contaminated sandy loam soil with 0; 3000; 15,000; or 45,000 mg of petroleum kg-1 soil (n = 20). Plants were inoculated with 500 spores of G. intraradices (Mycorise® ASP, PremierTech Biotechnologies, Canada). After 90 days, plant growth of AMF or Non-AMF plants, was drastically affected at all petroleum concentrations. However, G. intraradices enhanced plant growth, chlorophyll content, and gas exchange of plants grown at 3,000 mg kg-1 compared to Non-AMF plants. Total leaf area, chlorophyll, and net photosynthesis were also higher (+380%, +63%, and +81%, respectively) at this concentration. Water use efficiency (net photosynthesis/stomatal conductance) of AMF-plants was three times greater than Non-AMF at 3,000 mg·kg-1. At concentrations of 15,000 and 45,000 mg kg-1 AMF did not have effect, but colonization was observed (11.8% and 18.6%, respectively). These values of colonization were significantly lower than those observed in AMF-plants at 0 (42.5%) and 3,000 mg·kg-1 (55.6%). Studies are currently being conducted to understand the physiological role of AMF on plants exposed to organic contaminants.
R.G. Linderman and E.A. Davis
Formation and function of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are affected by levels of fertility in soil or fertilizers applied to soilless container mixes. For AM fungi, phosphorus (P) is the main element influencing colonization of host plant roots. The question addressed in this study was whether inorganic or organic fertilizers were more compatible with the formation and function of AM. Several controlled-release inorganic (CRI) fertilizers were compared with several organic (OR) fertilizers at different rates (½× to 4× the recommended rate) to determine (1) threshold levels of tolerance by the AM fungus Glomus intraradices in relation to root colonization, and (2) growth responses of `Guardsman' bunching onion (Allium cepa) and `Orange Cupido' miniature rose (Rosa spp.) plants grown in a soilless potting mix or sandy loam soil. AM colonization in soil was greatly decreased or totally inhibited by CRI fertilizers with high P content at the 2× rate or greater, whereas colonization was decreased but never eliminated by low-P OR fertilizers at the 3× rate or greater. Shoot growth of onions was similar with or without AM inoculation when fertilized with CRI, but in general was only enhanced by OR fertilizers if inoculated with AM fungi, compared to the noninoculated controls. Shoot and root growth of onions were significantly increased by AM inoculation when OR fertilizers were used at the 1× rate. In contrast, root growth was not increased by the combination of CRI fertilizers and AM fungal inoculation. Inoculation of miniature roses grown in sandy loam amended with 25% peat and perlite and fertilized with all the CRI or OR fertilizers resulted in high AM colonization, but without much AM-induced growth increase except where OR fertilizers or CRI fertilizers with low P were used. In a soilless potting mix, growth of miniature roses was less with OR fertilizers at the rates used than CRI fertilizers, but mycorrhiza formation was greater in the former unless P was low in the latter. These results indicate that release of nutrients from organic fertilizers, as a result of microbial activity, favors AM establishment and function more than most inorganic fertilizers unless P levels of the latter are low.
Victoria Estaún, Amelia Camprubí, Cinta Calvet, and Jorge Pinochet
This paper reports the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on early plant development, field establishment, and crop yield of the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Arbequina. The response of olive plants to the fungi Glomus intraradices (Schenck and Smith) and G. mosseae (Nicol.& Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe in different potting mixes was studied in two different nursery experiments. Pre-inoculation with selected arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi prior to transplanting in the field improved plant growth and crop yield up to three years after inoculation. G. intraradices was more efficient at promoting plant growth than both G. mosseae and the native endophytes present in the orchard soil. Inoculation at the time of transplanting enhanced early plant growth in all the field situations studied. Diminishing mycorrhizal effects over time resulted from natural colonization of noninoculated seedlings and related to the native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal population of the field soil. Early inoculation of olive seedlings enhances early plant development and crop productivity of olive trees.
Chris A. Martin and Jean C. Stutz
Sour orange (Citrus aurannum L.) seedlings were inoculated with geographic isolates of an endomycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices Smith and Schneck, from a xeric (New Mexico) or mesic (Florida) climate or not inoculated as controls, and were grown for 5 months under high (soil water potential more than or equal to –0.1 MPa, irrigated once every 3 days) or low (more than or equal to –1.0 MPa, irrigated once every 12 to 15 days) irrigation frequency regimens. Similar leaf P concentrations were achieved in all plants by giving more P fertilizer to nonmycorrhizal plants than mycorrhizal plants. Plants inoculated with the xeric isolate had more arbuscules and fewer vesicles than those inoculated with the mesic isolate. Mycorrhizal fungi had little affect on plant growth under high irrigation frequency. Low irrigation frequency reduced plant growth compared with high irrigation frequency. Under low irrigation frequency, shoot and root growth increased for mycorrhizal plants; however, the magnitude of increase of shoot growth was greatest for plants inoculated with the xeric isolate. Additionally, low irrigation frequency was associated with a dramatic decrease in vesicle formation in roots inoculated with the mesic isolate. This study showed that sour orange plants especially benefited from inoculation with an isolate from a xeric climate under low irrigation frequency, independent of P nutrition.
S. Mantha, H. Desilets, J.-A. Rioux, S. Gagne, S. Parent, and P. Moutoglis
Two experiments with Malus domestica sp. were planted in 1997 at the Laval Univ. experimental farm located south of the St. Lawrence river near Quebec City. These experiments examined the association of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices with Malus domestica sp. The first experiment compared the vegetative growth of `McIntosh' apple trees on M.106 rootstock in presence or absence of a commercial inoculum of G. intraradices (Premier Tech, Riviere-du-Loup, Quebec) under three levels of phosphorus fertilization (P) to the soil (0%, 50%, and 100% of the usual recommandation for this crop). After two seasons, all the treatments had better growth than the control (0% P without G. intraradices). The best treatment was achieved with 100% of the P associated with mycorrhizal inoculation. The second experiment compared the vegetative growth of three apple rootstocks Bud.9, M.26, and M.106, inoculated with G. intraradices under the same three P levels as the preceding experiment. Uninoculated rootstocks receiving the usual phosphorus fertilization served as control. Two roostocks, M.26 and M.106, increased growth with G. intraradices, while the third one, Bud.9, did not respond to the presence of mycorrhizal fungus.
Alejandro Alarcon, Frederick T. Davies Jr., Robin L. Autenrieth, David Wm. Reed, and David A. Zuberer
A phytoremediation study in a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial experimental design was conducted to determine the effect of Glomus intraradices (AMF) inoculation and inorganic fertilization on the growth and development of Lolium multiflorum cv. Passarel Plus, and on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). The 80-day study was done with pots containing sandy soil. Seedlings of L. multiflorum were transplanted to uncontaminated or soil contaminated with Arabian crude oil (ACO) at concentrations of 3000 and 15,000 mg·kg-1. Half of the seedlings were inoculated with 500 spores of AMF. Plants were fertilized with Long Ashton Nutrient Solution (LANS) at 0.5×, 1.0×, or 2.0× strength, modified to supply 30 μg·mL-1 P to maximize the AMF establishment. Total plant dry weight and leaf antioxidant activity were reduced by ACO when compared to control plants. The LANS fertilization enhanced plant growth under ACO-contamination, and allowed similar antioxidant activity in plants exposed to 15,000 mg·kg-1. Soil rhizosphere respiration was increased by LANS, particularly with 15,000 mg·kg-1 ACO. AMF inoculation did not enhance plant growth, antioxidant activity, or microbial respiration. The average root colonization was around 30% in contaminated and uncontaminated rhizospheres, indicating that the tolerance of AMF symbiosis to ACO. Greater TPH degradation was achieved in non-AMF plants at 3000 mg·kg-1 ACO in combination with 0.5× LANS. LANS-fertilization with 1.0× or 2.0× did not enhance TPH-degradation when compared to 0.5× LANS.
Guillermo Rodríguez, Sergio Aguilar-Espinosa, Eugenio Perez-Molphe Balch, María del Rocío Flores-Bello, Javier Farias-Larios, and José Gerardo López-Aguirre
The present work is the first report in vitro on root induction of Agave salmiana Otto, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Several concentrations of bacteria and acetosyringone were used, and different inoculation sites were tested, such as leaves, shaft, and root. Incubation time in darkness was 6 days. The transformed adventitious roots appeared 25 days after inoculation. The best treatment was when the shaft was inoculated with: 1 × 108 bacteria/mL and 100 μm acetosyringone; in this treatment, induction of transformed roots was 57.5% in the inoculated sites. The activity and presence of the foreign genes in the transformed roots of A. salmianawere verified as follows: 1) histochemical staining for GUS activity was determined in 80% of the tested root; and 2) molecular analysis via PCR was made to verify the presence of nptII gene and rol B gene (both were present in 60% of the tested root). This is the first report of the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization on wild roots and transformed roots of Agavewith Glomus intraradicesSchenck and Smith. The result of the monoxenic culture was as follows: mother spore germinated 5 days; the colonization of the transformed roots was 70%. Then we proceeded to the recovery of daughter spores, in which we obtained an average 300 daughter spores per petri dish, 6 months after inoculation.
Laura L. Arriola, Mary K. Hausbeck, John Rogers, and Gene R. Safir
Commercially available biocontrol agents Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith were tested for their efficacy in controlling fusarium root rot in potted asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) seedlings. High and low concentrations of Fusarium oxysporum (Schlect.) emend. Snyd. & Hans. f. sp. asparagi Cohen & Heald (FOA) were combined with G. intraradices and/or T. harzianum treatments. In both experiments included in this study, T. harzianum and G. intraradices alone and in combination effectively reduced root rot caused by FOA when asparagus seedlings were grown in low levels of FOA-infested medium. When seedlings were grown in high levels of FOA-infested medium, the combination of T. harzianum + G. intraradices significantly increased dry shoot mass and limited root rot compared to the control.
Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas, Aysen Akay, and Salih Maden
The first outbreak of fire blight incited by Erwinia amylovora (Burr.) Winslow et al. occurred on pome fruits in Turkey in 1985, and it is now one of the most serious diseases of pear, apple, quince, and loquat (Oktem and Benlioglu, 1988). In this study, experiments were conducted in Konya Province to evaluate the efficacy of Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) and bactericides for control of the shoot blight phase of fire blight and control of shoot growth on the different apple cultivars (Gala, Red Elstar, Pinova, Jonagored) on M9 rootstock in 2002 to 2003. Streptomycin provided 84.38% to 95.24% and 85.28% to 89.97% disease control in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Copper complex was not so effective against shoot blight phase of the disease, and it reduced disease by 16.18% to 27.75% and 14.48% to 19.06% in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Results of VAM application were encouraging, indicating a reduction of fire blight by Glomus intraradices of between 9.7% and 50.5% in 2002 and between 23.9% and 48.4% in 2003, respectively.