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A. Graifenberg, L. Botrini, L. Giustiniani, and M. Lipucci Di Paola

`Monte Bianco' and `Everest' fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) were grown in 157-L plastic pots and irrigated with water containing NaCl at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 g·L–1. The salt-tolerance threshold for yield was expressed as electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECi) and saturated soil extract (ECe). ECi was 1.15 dS·m–1 for both cultivars and ECe was 1.51 and 1.47 dS·m–1 for `Monte Bianco' and `Everest', respectively. The thresholds for plant fresh weight were the same as yield. Below the threshold the average bulb yields were 265 g/plant in `Monte Bianco' and 284 g/plant in `Everest'. Relative yields were reduced 18.9% and 17.8% for ECi and 15.7% and 14.3% for ECe for each unit increase above the threshold in `Monte Bianco' and `Everest', respectively. Sodium concentration was higher in bulbs in comparison with other tissues at all salinities. Bulb Na concentration increased to 3 dS·m–1, reaching 1835 and 1866 mmol·kg–1 dry weight in `Monte Bianco' and `Everest', respectively. Chloride concentration had similar tissue distribution and trend as Na. Potassium concentration in bulbs decreased with increasing Na concentration, while it remained constant in the other organs. Calcium concentration was not affected by salinity. Thus, fennel is sensitive to salt stress, lacking mechanisms for controlling ion influx into plant tissues, and is unable to cope with saline sodic environments.

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Kelly M. Bowes and Valtcho D. Zheljazkov

Field and laboratory experiments were conducted at two sites in Nova Scotia during 2001 and 2002 to assess the potential to grow fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) as an essential oil crop in the Maritime region of Canada. Three cultivars—`Shumen', `Berfena', and `Sweet Fennel'—and two seeding dates—24 May and 8 June—were evaluated. Essential oil yields and composition were determined and compared to commercially available fennel essential oil from the U.S. The highest herbage yields were produced by `Shumen' from the earlier seeding date. Essential oil content and yields were lowest in `Sweet Fennel' and highest in `Shumen'. The major component of the essential oil was anethole, 47% to 80.2%. Other major components of the essential oil were methyl chavicol, fenchone, α-phellandrene, α-pinene, ortho cymene, β-phellandrene, fenchyl acetate, β-pinene, and apiole. The essential oil composition was unique to each cultivar. The highest methyl chavicol content was in `Shumen', while the highest concentration of phellandrene, fenchyl acetate and apiole were detected in `Sweet Fennel' oil. Fenchone, ortho cymene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, and α-pinene were the highest in `Berfena'. The composition of the oil was similar to the commercially purchased oil and met industry requirements of oil composition. The results suggest there is potential to grow fennel as an essential oil crop in Nova Scotia.

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Linda M. Falzari, Robert C. Menary, and Valerie A. Dragar

Fruit set is a key component of essential oil yield from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under Tasmanian conditions. Fruit set in commercial crops is often low, possibly due to incomplete pollination. Fennel flowers are strongly protandrous and a series of flowers must be produced to ensure pollination. The hypothesis tested was that decreasing stand density increases the number of lateral branches, thereby increasing the number of higher order umbels and thus increasing the overlap between the periods of pollen production and stigma receptivity. A field trial was used to examine the number of umbels of each order produced under stand densities of 4, 12, 25, 50 and 100 plants/m2. Stand density influenced the ratio of pollen producing to pollen receptive umbels and stand densities of 50 and 100 plants/m2 showed a distinct imbalance between pollen production and stigma receptivity. The data collected supported the hypothesis and it is probable that, in commercial crops, fruit set is being reduced by a lack of synchrony between pollen production and stigma receptivity. The highest stand density tested reduced total oil production. We therefore recommend the inclusion of low stand-density strips within standard-density commercial crops.

Open access

Carol A. Miles, Thomas S. Collins, Yao Mu, and Travis Robert Alexander

) J. Agr. Food Chem. 53 4032 4040 Badgujar, S.B. Patel, V.V. Bandivdekar, A.T. 2014 Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application and toxicology BioMed Res. Intl. 2014 1 32 Barros, L. Carvalho

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Jerry T. Walker

Twenty herb species were exposed to root-knot nematode under greenhouse conditions. The root systems were examined for root gall development and nematode reproduction as an indication of host suitability. The herbs evaluated were balm (Melissa officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativium L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavender (Lavandula augustifolia Mill.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), peppermint (Mentha ×piperita L.), rocket-salad (Erurca vesicaria L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.), sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.). Peppermint, oregano, and marjoram consistently were free of root galls after exposure to initial nematode populations of two or 15 eggs/cm3 of soil medium and were considered resistant. All other herb species developed root galls with accompanying egg masses, classifying them as susceptible or hypersusceptible to root-knot nematode. The highest initial nematode egg density (15 eggs/cm3) significantly decreased dry weights of 14 species. The dry weights of other species were unaffected at these infestation densities after 32- to 42-day exposure.

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Linda M. Falzari, Robert C. Menary, and Valerie A. Dragar

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is grown commercially in Tasmania for the production of a steam-distilled essential oil, which is high in trans-anethole. Often, only the generative canopy is harvested since this contains the bulk of the oil and further this oil is higher in anethole than oil from other parts of the plant. Regardless of whether the whole crop is forage harvested or the generative canopy alone is removed using a combine-harvester, the most efficient oil production occurs when the greatest proportion of the canopy is generative, giving maximum oil yield from a minimum of fresh weight to be processed. A trial was conducted to examine the relationship between stand density and the various yield components of fennel in order to predict the likely effect on yield of increasing stem density as the short term perennial crop matures. As for most crops, planting density and biomass yield are closely related and the optimum planting density was predicted using a mathematical model. The results suggest that an initial stand density of 10 to 12 plants/m2, in a square layout, would produce the greatest yield of essential oil per unit area by maximising the production of the generative canopy. This density also maximises the yield of oil relative to the weight of material to be distilled.

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V.H. Escalona, F. Artés-Hernández, and F. Artés

Freshly harvested bulbs of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce) `Clio' were sliced at 5 °C, dipped in 100 mg·L–1 NaOCl solution, and packaged in passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) by using trays covered and thermal sealed with unperforated or perforated polypropylene film. According to common commercial needs a shelf life of 14 d at 0 and 5 °C was applied. The respiration rate of fresh-cut fennel was 1.3- to 1.7-fold higher at 5 °C than at 0 °C, and was 1.4- to 1.8-fold higher than that reported for whole bulbs. MAP did not prevent the declines in SSC and TA that occurred during storage, while pH did not change. Water loss was lower than 0.1% in all treatments, and no decay or physiological disorders developed during storage. The gas compositions of 16 to 18 kPa O2 plus 2 to 4 kPa CO2 generated within the perforated packages at 0 and 5 °C or 1.5 to 2 kPa O2 plus 18 to 20 kPa CO2 in unperforated packages at 5 °C did not inhibit browning on the cut surface or other sensory changes of the slices. However, atmospheres in unperforated packages of 4 to 6 kPa O2 plus 10 to 14 kPa CO2 at 0 °C maintained the sensory quality like at harvest.

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Ekaterina A. Jeliazkova, Valtcho D. Jeliazkov, Lyle E. Craker, and Baoshan Xing

Phytoremediation has been suggested as a solution to heavy metal—polluted soils, but the choices of suitable plant species for phytoremediation have been limited. Medicinal and aromatic plants appear to be excellent selections for these plantings, since these plants are grown for economically valuable secondary products (essential oils), not for food or feed. Preliminary research indicates that heavy metals are not accumulated in essential oils, permitting the oil to be used commercially. Productivity of some, but not all aromatic plants was reduced, however, by the heavy metals. The objective of our experiment was to distinguish the mechanism of heavy metal tolerance of plants using germinating seeds of medicinal and aromatic plant species. Seeds from medicinal and aromatic plants were germinated in solutions with selected levels of heavy metals (cadmium at 6 and 10 (μg·L-1; copper at 60 and 150 μg·L-1; lead at 100 and 500 μg·L-1; zinc at 400 and 800 μg·L-1) and in distilled water. Tests on Anethum graveolens L., Carum carvi L., Cuminum cyminum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pimpinella anisum L., Ocimum basilicum L., and the hyperaccumulator species Brassica juncea L. and Alyssum bertolonii established that different plant species reacted in different ways to the heavy metals. For example, cadmium did not decrease seed germination of Alyssum, O. basilicum, and B. juncea compared with germination in water but did decrease germination of C. cyminum. Lead did not affect germination of A. bertolonii and B. juncea as compared with water but did negatively affect germination of P. anisum, F. vulgare, and C. cyminum. Except for B. juncea, F. vulgare, and C. cyminum, copper had a negative effect on germination. Zinc decreased germination in all tested species except B. juncea.

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Santosh Shiwakoti, Tess Astatkie, Ivan Salamon, Daniela Grul'ová, Silvia Mudrencekova, and Vicki Schlegel

and aroma. Recent reports on the effect of HDT on crushed dill ( Anethum graveolens L.) ( Sintim et al., 2015 ), coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) ( Zheljazkov et al., 2014 ), and fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill) ( Burkhardt et al., 2015

Open access

Li Liu, Lin Jin, and Qiaosheng Guo

and Craven, 2011 ) and increase the number of umbels per plant, the dry weight of 1000 fruits, and the oil yield of Foeniculum vulgare ( Dolatabadi et al., 2011 ). Members of Inocybe are mycorrhizal ( Esteve-Raventós et al., 2018 ), and evidence