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Jose A. Oliveira, Ana B. Monteagudo, Suleiman S. Bughrara, Jose L. Martínez, Ana Salas, Esther Novo-Uzal, and Federico Pomar

, e.g., Festuca arundinacea and Festuca pratensis , and the fine fescues, e.g., the Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina groups ( Turgeon, 2005 ). Species of F. rubra provide the best turfgrass for dry, moderately shaded areas and infertile

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Adam Dale

Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) plants of eight varieties were grown either through black plastic mulch or in bare soil and with the area between the rows cultivated or sodded with red fescue (Festuca rubra L.). Over 6 years, black plastic mulch increased yields by 26% over no mulch and cultivation between the rows increased yield by 32% compared to sod. The effect of both treatments was additive, cultivation and black plastic increased yield by 68% over grass and no black plastic. Growers are recommended to plant black currants through black plastic and avoid using sod between the rows.

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T.J. Tworkoski, D.M. Glenn, and W.V. Welker

Carbohydrate and nitrogen were measured during 1992 and 1993 in shoots of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] trees that were planted in 1989 and grown in three vegetation-free areas contained within plots planted to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber), orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), or a mixture of Lolium perenne L. and Festuca rubra L. Trees grown in 9.3-, 3.3-, and 1.5-m2 vegetation-free areas had the greatest to the least fruit yield, respectively. Fruit number and mass were negatively correlated with stem mass. Grass type had little effect on mass, carbohydrate, or N partitioning within the tree. Individual sugars and carbohydrate partitioning were not affected by grass competition. In contrast, the proportion of shoot N partitioning into stem and leaves declined markedly as the size of the vegetation-free area increased. Proximity of peach trees to grass may have limited N uptake, which, in turn, reduced fruit yield but not stem and leaf growth.

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P.V. Blenis, L.B. Nadeau, N.R. Knowles, and G. Logue

Marasmius oreades, a causal agent of fairy rings, is one of the most important pathogens of turfgrass in the Great Plains region of North America. Following in vitro and greenhouse screening of surfactants and fungicides, two organosilicone surfactants, Silwet L-77 and Sylgard, together with the fungicide chlorothalonil, were evaluated in the field. Treatments were applied to healthy and infested turfgrass (Poa pratensis L., Festuca rubra L.) in either 1992, 1993, or in both years. Plots were sampled for grass production, canopy cover, mushroom production, grass chlorophyll content, soil water content, and phytotoxicity. Typically, there were no significant fungicide effects, fungicide by surfactant interactions or differences between Silwet L-77 and Sylgard. Relative to the water control, surfactants caused an approximate 3-fold increase in grass productivity on infested plots in the year of application. However, the difference in canopy cover between organosilicone-treated and control plots tended to be much less. Applying the surfactants to diseased plots in two successive years decreased the canopy cover but had no significant effect on grass production. Chlorophyll content tended to decrease in response to surfactants regardless of whether the turf was infested or healthy. Surfactants almost completely eliminated mushroom production and greatly reduced the occurrence of mycelium. Both organosilicones increased soil water content in infested areas; differences were detectable 2 years after application. Acute phytotoxicity from the surfactants was detected in infested but not in healthy plots. There was no direct evidence of chronic phytotoxicity. Organosilicone surfactants appear to have considerable potential for the management of fairy rings. Chemical names used: oxyalkylenemethylsiloxane (Silwet L-77); 2-(3-hydroxypropyl)-heptamethyltrisiloxane (Sylgard); tetrachloroisopthalonitrile (chlorothalonil).

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M. Zhang, M. Nyborg, and S.S. Malhi

Coating of conventional urea with polymers is designed to improve N availability to crops. A field experiment was conducted from 1993 to 1994 on turfgrass at Ellerslie, Alta., Canada, to determine release rates of coated urea applied on turfgrass thatch surface, and the effect of coated urea application on growth, color, and N uptake of turfgrass. The experiment was established on existing stands of a mixture of `Merion' Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) and `Gennuina' creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) growing on a Black Chernozemic (Typic Cryoboroll) soil. The annual rate of N application was 100 kg·ha-1 in 1993 and 1994. The release rate of urea fertilizers was determined by the weight loss of the fertilizer granules after application in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) cylinders inserted into the turfgrass thatch. Some coated urea fertilizers released most of their N within the growing season (e.g., Sherritt-G, Polyon 4%, and SulfurKote), while others released only half their N (e.g., Esso T-90 and Meister 7), probably because of the cool ambient summer temperature in the area. The growth and color of turfgrass were more uniform in some controlled-release fertilizer treatments (e.g., Esso T-90, Meister 7, Polyon 4%, and SulfurKote) than in noncoated urea and NH4NO3 treatments. Promotion of growth in 1994 as a residual effect of the 1993 controlled-release urea fertilizer application was also noted. The results suggest that the application of some controlled-release urea fertilizers (with 70- to 90-day release rates) can produce the most consistent quality turfgrass.

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Trygve S. Aamlid and Peter J. Landschoot

‘Bardot’ and ‘Nor’, creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera L.) ‘Penn A-4’ and ‘Nordlys’, chewings fescue [ Festuca rubra L. sp. commutata (Thuill.) Nyman] ‘Koket’ and ‘Wilma’, slender creeping red fescue [ Festuca rubra L. sp. litoralis (Meyer

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M.L Parker, J. Hull, and R.L. Perry

The root distribution of peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch cv. Redhaven/Halford] as affected by six orchard floor management treatments was evaluated after 3 years of growth. Two treatments were maintained vegetation-free and four had vegetative covers in the alleyway with a 1.2-m-wide herbicide strip in the tree row. The profile wall method was used to determine root distribution. Trees maintained vegetation-free with herbicide had the most roots. Trees in the vegetation-free plots, maintained with herbicide or cultivation, produced more roots 1.2 m from the tree than trees in the vegetative covers. The number of roots, 1.2 m from the tree, was lowest in the tall fescue treatment. The number of roots were higher in the Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) than with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Schreb.).

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Zipeng Tian, Bingru Huang, and Faith C. Belanger

by AFLP markers and rDNA sequences Mycol. Res. 103 1593 1603 Vázquez-de-Aldana, B.R. García-Ciudad, A. García-Criado, B. Vicente-Tavera, S. Zabalgogeazcoa, I. 2013 Fungal endophyte ( Epichloë festucae ) alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra

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Longyi Yuan, Deying Li, Yang Gao, and Wenjing Xiao

following deicing salt treatments during cold weather at four locations in Minnesota, Friell et al. (2011) reported that cultivars of ALK performed best at the MnROAD research facility (Albertville, MN), whereas ‘Shoreline’ slender creeping RF ( Festuca

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D.S. Gardner and J.A. Taylor

In 1992, a cultivar trial was initiated in Columbus, Ohio to evaluate differences in establishment and long-term performance of cultivars of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), creeping red fescue (F. rubra), chewings fescue (F. rubra ssp. fallax), hard fescue (F. brevipila), kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), rough bluegrass (P. trivialis), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) under low maintenance conditions in a shaded environment. Fertilizer and supplemental irrigation were applied until 1994 to establish the grasses, after which no supplemental irrigation, or pesticides were applied and fertilizer rates were reduced to 48.8 kg·ha-1 (1 lb/1000 ft2) of N per year. Percentage cover and overall quality data were collected in 2000 and compared with data collected in 1994. Initial establishment success does not appear to be a good predictor of long-term success of a cultivar in a shaded environment. There was some variability in cultivar performance under shade within a given turfgrass species. The tall fescue cultivars, as a group, had the highest overall quality and percentage cover under shade, followed by the fine fescues, kentucky bluegrass, rough bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass cultivars.