Seedling `Tennessee Natural' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees were grown in a series of five greenhouse experiments to determine how peach root development was affected by the interaction of soil pressure potential and the presence of Kentucky-31 (K-31) tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae Schreb.). Peach trees were grown in split-root rhizotrons that had four separate root growth sections. When two of the four sections had live sod (LS) and two remained bare soil (BS), there was no effect of the LS on peach root development when the trees were irrigated daily. Peach root development was reduced in BS and LS treatments when soil pressure potential was less than -0.06 MPa. In contrast, when trees were grown in rhizotrons that had all four sections with either LS or a killed K-31 sod (KS), peach root development was reduced in the LS treatment compared to the KS treatments when irrigated daily or when soil pressure potential reached -0.03 MPa. The apparent root surface water potential of peach trees in the LS treatment was -0.4 MPa lower than that in the KS treatment under daily irrigation due to the interference of the K-31 tall fescue. In two additional experiments using peach trees with BS in all four sections, we maintained three sections at field capacity and allowed one section to dry to -0.06 to 1.5 MPa. During the night, when transpiration was low, water was transferred to the dry soil section via the peach root system from the three wet soil sections. It appears that the root system of peach can maintain root development in the presence of tall fescue by transferring water from regions of high water availability to those of low availability.
D.M. Glenn and W.V. Welker
D.M. Glenn and W.V. Welker
We determined how differences in peach tree water use and shoot and root growth due to ground cover treatments are affected by tree response and soil conditions in the adjacent soil environment. Ground cover combinations of bare soil (BS), a killed K-31 tall fescue sod (KS), a living Poa trivialis sod (PT), and a living K-31 tall fescue sod (LS) were imposed on 50% of the soil surface in greenhouse studies. The ground cover on 50% of the soil surface influenced root and top growth of the peach trees [Prunus persica (L) Batsch], water use, and NO3-N levels in the opposing 50%, depending on the competitiveness of the cover crop (LS vs. PT and KS) and characteristics of the soil (BS vs. KS). Tree growth was allometrically related to root growth.
David M. Modise, Michael D. Glenn, and Morris Ingle
The split root technique was used to study water afflux in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from wet to dry soil through root systems that bridge wet and dry soil. Peach trees conduct hydraulic lift (HL) to ameliorate water deficits in dry soil layers, under conditions of low transpirational demand. The objectives of this study were to examine the magnitude of HL in peach and to determine its effect on nutrient uptake from dry soil. In addition, the split root system was used to measure peach water uptake from soil supporting `Kentucky 31' tall fescue [Festuca arundinaceae (Schreb)] and determine the diurnal partitioning of water use from covered and bare soil treatments. A Scholander pressure bomb was used to record hourly measurements of water potentials (10 am to 4 p m), daily for a total of 14 days in 3 replicates (1 tree/rep.). Leaf stomata1 resistance was measured using a porometer, simultaneously with the water potential measurements. The CR 7 datalogger was used to record water transfer into the dry root section. 15N was applied in the 15-30 cm root zone, and the concentration in the leaves was determined using a mass spectrometer. Results obtained will be discussed in relation to objectives stated above.
M.D. Richardson and K.W. Hignight
Seed coating has been effectively used in the agricultural and horticultural industries for over 100 years. Recently, several turfgrass seed companies have been applying seed coating technologies to commercial seed lines, but there have been limited studies that have demonstrated a positive benefit of seed coating to turfgrass seed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two commercially available seed coating technologies, including a fungicide/biostimulant coating and a starch-based polymer coating, on tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae) and kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) in three soil types. Coated seeds were obtained from a retail outlet. Non-coated seed samples were developed by removing the coating from the seed just before planting. Neither coating technology had an effect on tall fescue speed of germination or total germination percentage in any of the soil types. Seed coating did have a positive effect on the speed of germination of kentucky bluegrass in a sandy loam soil, but did not improve the speed of germination or percentage emergence in the other soil types. These results support earlier findings that seed coating has minimal effects on establishment of turfgrass species. However, these coatings may provide benefits when attempting to establish turfgrasses in less than ideal conditions.
Qi Zhang, Liqi Yang, and Kevin Rue
industry lost $150 million in revenue ( Govindasamy et al., 2007 ). It has been reported that inter and intraspecific differences in drought tolerance in turfgrass exist. Fry and Huang (2004) reported that tall fescue ( Festuca arundinaceae ) showed very
Jinmin Fu and Peter H. Dernoeden
drying reduces the proportion of newly photosynthesized carbon allocated to leaves, while increasing the proportion of carbon allocated to tall fescue ( Festuca arundinaceae Schreb.) roots ( Huang and Fu, 2000 ; Huang and Gao, 2000 ). This allocation of
Maria P. Fuentealba, Jing Zhang, Kevin E. Kenworthy, John E. Erickson, Jason Kruse, and Laurie E. Trenholm
-season grasses have been documented. For example, Qian et al. (1997) reported that total root length in a 120-cm profile of ‘Mustang’ tall fescue ( Festuca arundinaceae Schreb) was three times greater than ‘Meyer’ zoysiagrass (ZJ), ‘Midlawn’ hybrid
Jason J. Griffin, William R. Reid, and Dale J. Bremer
.E. Snider, H.J. Getz, C.A. 1935 Destruction of organic matter in plant material by the use of nitric and perchloric acids Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal. Ed. 7 185 186 Gilmore, A.R. 1977 How fescue ( Festuca
Donald M. Vietor, Ronnie W. Schnell, Tony L. Provin, Richard H. White, and Clyde L. Munster
applied without Alum on tall fescue ( Festuca arundinaceae Schreb.) ( Moore and Edwards, 2007 ). In the present study, Alum incorporated with CB or sprayed on transplanted sod with or without CB similarly reduced soil WEP concentration within the 0- to 5
Emily B. Merewitz, Thomas Gianfagna, and Bingru Huang
. Morris, P. 1998 Stability of transgene expression during vegetative propagation of protoplast derived tall fescue ( Festuca arundinaceae Schreb.) plants J. Expt. Bot. 49 1797 1804 Blackman, P.G. Davies, W