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Ali O. Sari, Mario R. Morales, and James E. Simon

Echinacea pallida, one of the three medicinal Echinacea species native to North America, is generally wildcrafted, and low and uneven seed germination are obstacles to its widespread cultivation. Nonstratified E. pallida seeds were treated with 2500, 3500, and 4500 mg/L GA3 to increase seed germination. Treated seeds were directly germinated at 25 °C and 25/15 °C (14/10h) or stored at 5 and 10 °C for 4, 8, and 12 weeks before germination at the same temperatures. Seed germination across treatments was higher at 25 °C (19%) than at 25/15 °C (14%). Application of 2500, 3500, and 4500 mg/L GA3 significantly increased seed germination rate and total seed germination of nonstratified seeds of E. pallida and resulted in 44%, 50%, and 63% total seed germination, respectively, while untreated control seeds germinated at only 9%. The effect of GA3 as a germination stimulant increased with cold storage, with maximum germination (83%) occurring after seeds were treated with 4500 mg/L GA3 and an 8-week cold storage period at 10 °C. The effect of cold storage periods of 4, 8, and 12 weeks and cold storage temperatures of 5 and 10 °C on seed germination were generally similar. Seeds collected from the upper rows of the seed heads germinated significantly higher (10.6%) than those collected from the lowest seed rows (2.4%).

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Ricky D. Kemery and Michael N. Dana

The objectives of this study were to compare the growth of prairie forb seedlings inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi to noninoculated seedlings transplanted to a highway right-of-way and to evaluate the effect of different VAM fungal species or combinations on posttransplant seedling growth. Four species of prairie forbs: pale-purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida Nutt.), prairie blazingstar (Liatris pycnostachya Michx.), prairie phlox (Phlox pilosa L.), and gray-headed coneflower [Ratibida pinnata (Venten.) Barnh.], were grown in greenhouse mix and inoculated with Gigaspora margarita Becker and Hall, or Glomus interadicies Schenk and Smith, or with a native Indiana prairie soil inoculum, or with a mix of all three. They were transplanted to a highway site in June, 1994. Only gray-headed coneflower exhibited a positive growth response to VAM inoculation. Inoculation of gray-headed coneflower with G. margarita produced the largest growth response by the end of the experiment.

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Richard L. Hassell, Robert J. Dufault, Tyron Phillips, and Teri A. Hale

Seeds of pale coneflower (Echinacea pallida), purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea), feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), and valerian (Valeriana officinalis), classified as “old” (1-year-old seed) or “fresh” (seed crop produced in the current year), were germinated at 62, 65, 69, 72, 75, 78, 82, 85, 89, and 92 °F, (16.7, 18.3, 20.6, 22.2, 23.9, 25.6, 27.8, 29.4, 31.6, and 33.3 °C). The optimum germination temperature, defined in this study as the temperature range within which the percent germination is greatest in the shortest period of time, was determined. Old and fresh pale coneflower seed germinated optimally after 5 days at 69 °F. Old purple coneflower seed required 5 d at 78 to 82 °F, but fresh seed germinated optimally after 3 days at 75 °F. Old feverfew germinated optimally after 5 days at 65 °F, but fresh seed germinated to its optimum after 5 days at 69 °F. Old and fresh valerian seed germinated to its optimum after 3 days at 75 °F.

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Jeremy R. Pinto, Rhiannon A. Chandler, and R. Kasten Dumroese

the effects of irrigation and container size on plant height, biomass, and survival; nutrient use and efficiency; and fertilizer leaching. Materials and Methods Nursery culture. We chose the native plant pale purple coneflower [ Echinacea

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Ricky D. Kemery and Michael N. Dana

Seedlings of six species of native prairie perennial forbs were installed monthly from Oct. 1993 to Nov. 1994 on two highway sites near West Lafayette, Ind. Survival varied significantly among species. Overall, 85% of Aster novae-angliae seedlings survived compared to 15% survival of Liatris pycnostachya seedlings. Survival also varied significantly with time of installation. Three species (Aster novae-angliae, Ratibida pinnata, and Veronicastrum virginicum) exhibited 95% survival when planted in mid-October, compared to 50% survival when planted in March. Fifty-seven percent survival of Echinacea pallida seedlings was observed with April plantings, compared to 9% survival of September plantings. Results of this study indicate that transplant survival rates of particular prairie species may be enhanced by precise timing of planting in late fall or early spring.

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Ricky D. Kemery and Michael N. Dana

The objective of this study was to determine whether container size or incorporation of water-holding hydrogels in the container medium would affect growth of prairie perennials transplanted on a steep slope. Seedlings of pale-purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida Nutt.), rough blazingstar (Liatris aspera Michx.), gray-headed coneflower [Ratibida pinnata (Venten.) Barnh.], and little bluestem grass [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash.], were grown in 3.7-cm (1.46-inch) diameter tubes that were either 13 cm (5.1 inches) or 18 cm (7.1 inches) long containing either standard greenhouse mix or the mix amended with hydrogels Terra-sorb AG or Liqua-Gel, or a nonhydrogel experimental compound, GLK-8924. The seedlings were transplanted to the slope in May 1994, and harvested in June 1995. After two growing seasons, plants of pale-purple cone-flower and gray-headed coneflower from the longer containers were larger (dry weight) than those from the shorter containers. The blazingstar and little bluestem were unafffected by container size. Terra-sorb AG and Liqua-Gel did not significantly affect height growth of the prairie perennials. GLK-8924-amended medium resulted in smaller or similar height plants.

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Jenny Heringer Vires, Robert Anderson, and Robert Geneve

Purple Coneflower [Echinacea sp. (Asteracea)] is of great value to the horticultural, pharmaceutical, and herbal industry. More research is needed to determine cultural practices that will produce a plant high in biomass and phenolic content, the chemical used for testing the quality of the harvested plant on a percent basis of roots, flowers and vegetative parts. The objective of this experiment is to determine if biomass and phenolic content of Echinacea purpurea and E. purpurea `Magnus' is influenced by fertilization after flower bud removal and vegetative pruning. The second objective of this study is to form an evaluation of the differences in biomass and phenolic content of five cultivars of E. purpurea and five species of Echinacea. Biomass and phenolic content will be evaluated to determine if exposing these plants to various treatments increases the quality of the plant over 1 and 2 years of growth. Differences in dry weights of Echinacea species and cultivars harvested after the first year of growth was determined. There was a significant difference in total dry weight between E. purpurea cultivars. Echinacea purpurea `Bright Star' and `Clio' significantly produced the most total dry weight compared to all other cultivars. There was no significant difference in root or flower biomass between cultivars. Biomass of Echinacea species was significantly different in root, vegetaive and flower parts. The total biomass of E. purpurea and E. tennesseensis was significantly higher compared to other species. Echinacea pallida and E. paradoxa were not significantly different from E. purpurea in root biomass, even though both species were small in above ground growth. Echinacea tennesseensis significantly produced 45% to 105% more flowers compared to other species. Differences in phenolic content between species and cultivars will also be presented.

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Carlos Vinicius Garcia Barreto, Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, Flávio Bussmeyer Arruda, and Roberto Testezlaf

plants were similar to those found by Landis (2005) studying two native plants [blue spruce ( Picea pungens ) and pale purple coneflower ( Echinacea pallida )] using subirrigation as well. The greater plant growth in our study shortened the crop cycle

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Gina M. Angelella, Laura Stange, Holly L. Scoggins, and Megan E. O’Rourke

perennial species [pale purple coneflower– Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., spotted bee balm– Monarda punctata L., showy evening primrose– Oenothera speciosa Nutt., and tall white beardtongue– Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims] ( Supplemental Table 1

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Layla J. Dunlap, Jeremiah R. Pinto, and Anthony S. Davis

or bottom layers, which is similar to results reported by Pinto et al. (2008) , who found that EC of the top layer of media was 48% greater than the middle or bottom layers while growing coneflower [ Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.] in a closed