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Juanxu Liu, Min Deng, Richard J. Henny, Jianjun Chen, and Jiahua Xie

The genus Dracaena Vand. Ex L. encompasses 60 species of glabrous, herbaceous, woody shrubs or trees that are largely indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia ( Hutchinson, 1986 ). As a result of their distinct foliage variegation and tolerance of

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Kalpana Sharma, Joyce L. Merritt, Aaron Palmateer, Erica Goss, Matthew Smith, Tim Schubert, Robert S. Johnson, and Ariena H.C. van Bruggen

. Examples include Puccinia hemerocallidis , the causal agent of daylily rust introduced in 2000 ( Buck and Ono, 2012 ), and Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2, introduced on geranium cuttings in 2003 ( Momol, 2006 ). Dracaena was the ornamental

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Yaser Hassan Dewir, Abdulhakim A. Aldubai, Rashid Sultan Al-Obeed, Salah El-Hendawy, Mayada Kadri Seliem, and Khadija Rabeh Al-Harbi

The genus Dracaena includes 113 species ( The Plant List, 2018 ) of woody stemmed foliage plants in the tropics ( Bailey, 1949 ). Dracaenas are evergreen shrubs or trees most frequently characterized by long linear leaves of significant decorative

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S.A. Riede, W. Nishijima, and R.Y. Iwata

Two fungicides and lime were evaluated for their effect on Dracaena fragrans Ker. cv. Massangeana plants which were severely affected by root rot. A completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates was utilized. These treatments were: control, lime at 3362 kg/ha, 4 applications of metalaxyl at 10.4 kg/ha, 6 applications of benomyl at 12.92 kg/ha and a metalaxyl/benomyl combination treatment. Field plots were 13 m2, and plants were spaced 0.5 m from center. Data was taken from 15 plants per plot at 0, 10 and 20 weeks.

There were significant differences in plant height and the quality of new growth between the treatments containing metalaxyl and those without metalaxyl. There was no significant difference between the metalaxyl and the metalaxyl/benomyl treatments.

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Harvey J. Lang, Claire-Lise Rosenfield, and David Wm. Reed

Ficus benjamina L. and Dracaena marginata Lam. were grown in a modified Hoagland's nutrient solution containing either 0, 0.22 or 5.52 mg Fe3+/liter (HEEDTA or EDTA). F. benjamina grew well at all Fe levels and showed mild chlorosis only at 0 mg Fe/liter. For D. marginata, growth decreased and chlorosis increased as solution Fe level decreased. F. benjamina exhibited a high capacity for Fe3+ reduction, which increased as Fe level decreased, reaching a maximum below 0.06 mg·liter-1 D. marginata exhibited a low capacity for Fe3+ reduction, which was slightly enhanced at 0.1 to 0.15 mg·liter-1. In both species, reduction occurred in the presence of roots, with minimal reduction in their absence. This result indicates that Fe3+ is reduced at the root surface and not by reductants released into the solution. F. benjamina increasingly lowered pH as solution Fe decreased, and always lowered pH more than D. marginata at all Fe levels. Total and extractable Fe concentration of leaves did not correlate well with chlorosis, whereas total Fe content per plant correlated highly with chlorosis. Chemical names used: N-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediamine-triacetic acid (HEEDTA), ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA).

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Svoboda V. Pennisi and Dennis B. McConnell

Detection of cuticular crystals in the 14 species of Dracaena examined indicated that they are probably ubiquitous throughout the genus and may permit rapid separation of dracaenas from plants with similar leaves such as the cordylines (Cordyline sp.). Dracaena species of the dragon tree group deposit the greatest quantity of uniformly small cuticular crystals. However, the distinction between individual species within this grouping, based solely on crystal numbers and size, is not sufficient for taxonomic separation. All other species of Dracaena studied did display species-specific quantities and sizes of cuticular crystals. This, in combination with characteristics of the leaf epidermis, could serve as part of a taxonomic key to the genus.

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Kent D. Kobayashi, Andrew F. Kawabata, and Joanne S Lichty

Photoselective shadecloths that manipulate light quality may enable nursery growers to achieve desired plant growth. This ability to manage plant habit could give growers an additional nonchemical tool to improve potted plant quality. The objective of this study was to determine growth and flowering responses of potted Dracaena and Anthurium plants to four shadecloths. Dracaena deremensis `Janet Craig' and Dracaena marginata `Colorama' cane top-cuttings were placed in 70% black cinder: 30% peat moss media. Anthurium `Lola' liners were transplanted into 100% black cinder medium. Plants were grown in a greenhouse under 70% shadecloths: black, gray, red, and blue. Four months after planting, Dracaena `Janet Craig' had more new leaves under red shadecloth (10.4) compared to other shadecloths (8.9–9.3). Leaf area was less with red shadecloth (340 cm2) than other treatments (380-388 cm2). Plants under the red shadecloth had the lowest grower evaluation scores (5.4; 1 = poor, 10 = excellent) than those under other shadecloths (7.2–8.2), but all plants were considered marketable. Dracaena `Colorama' plants under red shadecloth had the greater plant height increase (20.1 cm) than those under other shadecloths (10.1–13.2 cm). Red shadecloth resulted in more new leaves (26.2) compared to other treatments (18.0–21.4). Anthurium `Lola' flower height 9 months after transplanting was less under red shadecloth (23.0 cm) than under black (33.0 cm). The number of flowers/pot was greater under red shadecloth (3.17) compared to those under other shadecloths (0.50–1.33). Flower size was greater (35.2 cm2) under red shadecloth than under black (20.0 cm2). Photoselective shadecloths may be used to nonchemically manipulate plant growth and improve the quality of potted Dracaena and Anthurium plants.

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Svoboda V. Vladimirova, Dennis B. McConnell, Michael E. Kane, and Richard W. Henley

Effects of four shade levels on the growth of Dracaena sanderana hort Sander ex Mast. `Ribbon' were evaluated. The experiment was conducted using model structures providing four shade levels (47%, 63%, 80%, and 91%). Dracaena sanderana exhibited morphological plasticity in growth and development. Under 63% and 80% shade, plants grew faster and achieved greater biomass than those grown in 47% and 91 % shade. The lowest (47%) and the highest shade (91 %) provided supraoptimal and suboptimal light levels, respectively. More leaves with less leaf area, larger internodes, and larger root mass developed in plants grown in 63% shade. Fewer leaves with larger leaf areas, smaller internodes, and smaller root mass developed in plants grown in 80% shade. Plants grown in 47% or 63% shade were less variegated than those grown in 80% or 91 % shade. Maximum leaf variegation occurred under 91 % shade.

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Trent Y. Hata, Arnold H. Hara, Mike A. Nagao, and Benjamin K.S. Hu

Frangipani (Plumeria hybrid `Donald Angus') cuttings immersed in hot water (49C for 10 min) followed by 0.8% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) basal treatment (hot water + IBA) had greater root length and weight compared to the nontreated control, hot water, or IBA treatment alone. Greater percentage of rooting and number of roots per cutting were observed for hot-water-treated + IBA-treated cuttings compared to the non-treated control and hot-water treatment alone. In a second study, Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker-Gawl. `Massangeana', D. deremensis Engl. `Warneckii', D. deremensis Engl. `Janet Craig', D. marginata Lam., and cape jasmine (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) cuttings displayed results similar to those observed with Plumeria cuttings. In addition to enhancing rooting, hot water + IBA also stimulated the number of shoots per cutting on anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Andre `Marian Seefurth'), croton [Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume var. pictum (Lodd.) Mull. Arg.], D. marginata, D. fragrans, Plumeria, and ti (Cordyline terminalis `Ti') cuttings.

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Svoboda V. Vladimirov and Dennis B. McConnell

Effects of four shade levels (47%, 63%, 80%, and 91%) on growth of D. sanderana `Ribbon' were evaluated. D. sanderana exhibited morphological and anatomical plasticity manifested in differences in all growth parameters examined. Plant growth rate was significantly influenced by the light levels. Under 63% and 80% shade plants grew faster and achieved greater biomass than plants grown under 475% and 91% shade. Leaf variegation was affected by the shade level. Plants grown in 47% and 63% shade had less total variegation than plants grown in 80% and 91% shade. Leaf thickness was greater in plants grown under higher light levels. Marginal leaf growth was suppressed in plants grown in 47% and 63% shade, thus reducing the width of the achlorophyllous margins. The reverse occurred in leaves of plants grown in 80% and 91% shade. The change in variegation pattern occurred very early in leaf ontogeny—during lamina formation and expansion. This change was attributed to differences in relative contribution of the three shoot apical layers under different light conditions. Thus, Dracaena sanderana `Ribbon' when grown in the southeastern United States is shade obligate, with an optimum light intensity level of less than 53% of full sunlight.