Shredded and chipped wood mulches are used for weed suppression in perennial fruit crops, in urban landscapes, and occasionally in vegetable crops. Wood chip mulches with weed-suppressing allelochemicals may be more effective for weed control, especially under sustainable and organic production systems, than mulches without such properties. The objective of this study was to test for the presence of water-soluble allelochemicals in wood chips derived from tree species, often found in wood resource recovery operations in the southeastern US. Presence of allelochemicals in water eluates of woodchips and leaves was evaluated in a lettuce bioassay. Eluates of wood chips from red maple (Acer rubrum L.), swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.), red cedar (Juniperus silicicola L.H. Bailey), neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), and magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora L.) highly inhibited germinating lettuce seeds, as assessed by inhibition of hypocotyl and radicle growth. The effects of wood chip eluates from these five species were more than that found for eluates from wood chips of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.,) a species previously identified to have weed-suppressing allelochemicals. Tests on red cedar, red maple, and neem showed that water-soluble allelochemicals were present not only in the wood but also in the leaves. In greenhouse trials, red cedar wood chip mulch significantly inhibited the growth of florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum DC.), compared to the gravel-mulched and no-mulch controls.
Bala Rathinasabapathi, James Ferguson, and Mark Gal
Megh Singh, Shiv D. Sharma, Analiza H.M. Ramirez, and Amit J. Jhala
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide for postemergence weed control in Florida citrus (Citrus spp.). Variation in susceptibility of certain weed species to glyphosate has been observed in last few years. Therefore, understanding the mechanism underlying such phenomenon is required. Experiments were conducted to evaluate differences in tolerance of four weed species to glyphosate by quantifying glyphosate efficacy, the amount of epicuticular wax, absorption, and translocation of carbon-14-labeled glyphosate (14C glyphosate). The results of glyphosate efficacy study suggested that application of glyphosate at 3 oz/acre resulted in 99%, 90%, and 84% control of florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum), spanishneedles (Bidens bipinnata), and johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), respectively. Increasing application rate and addition of nonionic surfactant (NIS) usually did not improve glyphosate efficacy. Ivyleaf morningglory (Ipomoea hederacea) was the most tolerant and resulted in 0% and 25% control when glyphosate applied at 3 and 24 oz/acre, respectively. Biomass reduction in all weed species reflected a similar trend to percent control in response to all glyphosate treatments. Glyphosate absorption and translocation in the weed species were differed with the quantity of wax extracted. Ivyleaf morningglory had the lowest leaf wax content (10.8 μg·cm−2) and showed less absorption (62% to 79%) and translocation (15% to 39%) of 14C-glyphosate compared with other weed species. The absorption of 14C-glyphosate was in the range of 87%, 71% to 83%, and 72% to 83%; and translocation was 34% to 50%, 32% to 52%, and 53% to 58% in florida beggarweed, spanishneedles, and johnsongrass, respectively. Increasing glyphosate application rate from 6 to 12 oz/acre and addition of NIS usually increased 14C-glyphosate translocation.
Andrew J. Hephner, Tyler Cooper, Leslie L. Beck, and Gerald M. Henry
). Singh and Singh (2004) observed 80% to 88% control of redroot pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus L.), Florida beggarweed [ Desmodium tortuosum (Sw.) DC.], hairy beggarticks ( Bidens pilosa L.), tall morning glory [ Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth], and
Biwek Gairhe, Peter Dittmar, Davie Kadyampakeni, Ozgur Batuman, Fernando Alferez, and Ramdas Kanissery
affecting absorption and bio-efficacy of glyphosate in Florida beggarweed ( Desmodium tortuosum ) Crop Prot. 20 6 511 516 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(01)00065-5 Tang, L. Chhajed, S. Vashisth, T. 2019 Preharvest fruit drop in