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Nadia Roude, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett

Plant height, flower diameter, days to flower, and longevity of `Iridon' chrysanthemums [Dendranthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] were not affected by various N and K concentrations (112, 225, 337, and 450 mg·liter-1) supplied during the last 5 weeks of production. However, increasing N concentration increased medium conductance, while varying K concentration had no effect on conductance. Visual grade of `Iridon' after 3 weeks in a simulated interior environment showed an interaction between concentrations of N and K. In a second study, growth and longevity of `Iridon' were affected by NH4: NO3 ratios. Plants receiving a 0:1.0 ratio flowered 4 days later than plants receiving a 0.5:0.5 ratio and were taller than plants fertilized with a 1.0:0 ratio. Longevity was greater in plants receiving a 0:1.0 ratio than in those receiving 0.5:0.5 or 0.75:0.25 ratios. Also, longevity was similar in plants receiving NH4: NO3 ratios of 0:1.0, 0.1:0.9, 0.2:0.8, and 0.3:0.7. Plants receiving 0:1.0 lasted 6 days longer than those receiving a 0.4:0.6 ratio.

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Kenneth E. Cockshull and Anton M. Kofranek

Garden chrysanthemums [Dendranthemum ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] are characterized by early flowering in September and October when grown out-of-doors and by rapid flowering in short days (SD). However, as rooted cuttings of these cultivars frequently have flower buds present at the time of planting, their true response to daylength cannot readily be determined. Vegetative shoots were obtained by growing rooted cuttings in long days (LD), removing the terminal bud, and then pinching the emerging side shoots at a very early stage. On transfer to SD, the vegetative secondary side shoots quickly initiated flower buds that developed to anthesis more rapidly than those of `Bright Golden Anne' (BGA), a lo-week response group cultivar. `Bandit', `Buckeye', `Compatriot', `Freedom', `Jackpot', and `Sunburst Cushion' appeared to be in the 7-week response group, with `Baby Tears' in the 6-week and `Powder River' in the 8-week response groups. All cultivars rapidly initiated flower buds in LD and, although they produced significantly more leaves than in SD, flower initiation began within ≈13 LD from pinching. When pinched twice and grown using black cloth in summer, garden chrysanthemums can form attractive, uniformly flowering pot plants. Their rapid-flowering characteristic could also be of value in breeding programs for cut-flower chrysanthemums.

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Nadia Roude, Terril A. Nell, and James E. Barrett

Chrysanthemums `Bright Golden Anne' and `Iridon' [Dendranthemum ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura] were grown with N concentrations of 1.3, 2.6, or 5.2 kg N/m' of water during the crop cycle from either Osmocote slow-release 14N-6.2P-11.6K or 12.4N4.4P-14.lK or Peters soluble 20N-4.4P-16.6K. Plants were moved to simulated interior rooms at flowering to evaluate effects of the treatments on longevity. `Bright Golden Anne' longevity was not affected by fertilizer source, but `Iridon' longevity was reduced when Peters soluble fertilizer was applied at 2.6 and 5.2 kg N/m3 of water, whereas N concentration did not affect longevity when the slow-release Osmocote fertilizer was used. In an additional study, `Tip', `Copper Hostess', and `Iridon' were grown in three soil media using 1.3, 2.6, or 5.2 kg N/m' of water using Peters soluble 20N-4.4P-16.6K fertilizer from time of planting until flowering. Longevity increased as N concentration decreased when chrysanthemums were grown in Metro Mix 350, whereas N concentration had no significant effect on chrysanthemums grown in Vergro Klay Mix or a peat-perlite-sand mix. `Tip' showed significant in. creases in longevity as N concentration decreased.

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John M. Ruter

A study was conducted with Dendranthemum ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura garden chrysanthemum (`Grenadine', `Nicole', and `Tolima') to evaluate the growth and flowering of these plants grown in 2.6-L (no. 1) black plastic containers compared to plants grown in fiber containers with Cu(OH)2 impregnated into the container walls. For all three cultivars, growth indices, shoot and root dry weights, and total biomass increased for plants grown in fiber containers. Total number of flower buds per plant increased 30% to 32% for `Grenadine' and `Nicole' and 53% for `Tolima' grown in fiber containers. Plants grown in Cu(OH)2-impregnated fiber containers had less root coverage at the container:growing medium interface and no observable root circling in contrast to visible root circling on plants grown in black plastic containers. Foliar nutrient analysis on `Grenadine' showed that K decreased and Fe and Cu increased when grown in Cu(OH)2-impregnated fiber containers. No visible nutrient abnormalities were seen in this study.

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Elizabeth Will, Terri W. Starman, James E. Faust, and Shane Abbitt

The objective was to study the flowering response of garden cultivars of Dendranthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura to temperature and photoperiod. Fifteen garden mum cultivars were grown in ten temperature (18 and 24°C constant day and night greenhouse temperatures) and photoperiod (8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 h) combinations. Rooted cuttings were pinched above the fifth node and placed in the temperature/photoperiod treatments. When axillary shoots developed, all but one shoot was removed to produce a single stemmed plant. Photoperiods were provided by delivering 8 h sunlight, then pulling black cloth and providing daylength extension with incandescent bulbs. Days to visible bud, days to first bud color, days to flower, node number, and stem length were measured. By 11 weeks after the start of photoperiod treatments, no difference was measured in days to flower in the 8-, 10-, and 12-h photoperiods at 18°C. Days to flower increased as photoperiod increased from 12 to 14 h. At 18°C, five cultivars flowered in the 16-h photoperiod, while 10 cultivars developed crown buds, i.e., flower buds that initiated but had not developed. At 24°C, there was no difference in days to flower in the 8and 10-h photoperiod, while days to flower increased as photoperiod increased from 10to 12-h treatment. Cultivars formed crown buds but had not reached flowering in the 14and 16-h photoperiods at 24°C. Regardless of temperature, stem length increased as photoperiod increased above 10 h.

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Kelly M. Oates, Darren H. Touchell, and Thomas G. Ranney

as Chyrsanthemum ( Dao et al., 2006 ), Dendranthemum grandiflorum ( Datta et al., 2001 ), Nelumbo nucifera ( Arunyanart and Soontronyatara, 2002 ), Rosa hybrida ( Arnold et al., 1998 ; Gupta and Shukla, 1971 ; van Harten, 1998 ), and

Open access

Michael Alden and James E. Faust

requirements for flower initiation and flower development can be different for the same plant. For example, chrysanthemums ( Dendranthemum × grandiflorum ) are SD plants that will initiate flowers under photoperiods that are insufficiently short for flower

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Michael Alden and James E. Faust

-day plant with regard to flower development. A similar phenomenon has been reported in the short-day plant chrysanthemum ( Dendranthemum ×grandiflorum ) in which flower buds initiate under long days but fail to develop unless short days are provided

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Shannon E. Beach, Terri W. Starman, Kristen L. Eixmann, H. Brent Pemberton, and Kevin M. Heinz

( Dendranthemum grandiflorum ) was increased by up to 7 d ( Nell et al., 1989 ), and less bract necrosis occurred on poinsettia ( Euphorbia pulcherrima ) ( Nell and Barrett, 1986 ). Decreased flower senescence occurred on campanula ( Campanula carpatica ) ( Serek