Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 107 items for :

  • " Dendranthema × grandiflorum " x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

Joseph J. King, Lloyd A. Peterson, and Dennis P. Stimart

Ammonium and NO3 uptake from hydroponic solutions containing 1 mm each of (NH4)2SO4 and Ca(NO3)2 were measured during development of Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura `Iridon', `Sequoia', and `Sequest'. Nitrogen depletion from solutions approximated a 1 NH4: 1 NO3 ratio throughout a 90-day growth cycle (r = 0.96). Although harvest date cultivar interactions were significant for both forms of N, overall patterns of N uptake were similar among cultivars. Nitrogen removal from hydroponic solutions (milligrams per plant) was greatest from days 40 to 60; however, N removal (milligrams per gram of tissue dry weight) was greatest in the first month of development and decreased steadily until day 90. From day 40 to 60, new leaf development ceased while inflorescence buds developed to ≈1.0 cm in diameter. After this time, N uptake decreased rapidly as inflorescences expanded. Correlations between morphological changes and N demand could maximize the efficiency of applied N by matching form and application timing with plant needs.

Free access

Richard K. Schoellhorn, James E. Barrett, Carolyn A. Bartuska, and Terril Nell

Effects of heat stress on viable and nonviable axillary meristem development and subsequent lateral branching in 'Improved Mefo' chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum Ramat. (Kitamura)] were studied. Plants grown at 33 °C day/27 °C night produced more nonviable buds than did plants grown at 23 °C day/18 °C night. A negative linear relationship {y = 28.7 + [-0.66 (x days)], r 2 = 0.70} between timing of exposure to high temperatures and the number of nonviable buds was observed. Histological examination 28 days after exposure to 33 °C/27 °C revealed that plants showed both normal and abnormal bud development. Abnormal bud development occurred as a consequence of premature differentiation of axillary meristematic tissue into nonmeristematic parenchyma tissue immediately after separation of axillary from apical meristems.

Free access

Nihal C. Rajapakse, David Wm. Reed, and John W. Kelly

Experiments were conducted to evaluate Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura cv. Bright Golden Anne quality and post-storage growth following storage in the range of 5 to 35C, initial soil water levels (60%, 80%, 100%), and durations (0 to 8 days). Transpiration rate showed a quadratic relationship with storage temperature. Initial soil water content had little effect on transpiration rate in dark storage environments. The lowest transpiration rate was observed in plants stored at 15 or 20C. Amino acid (AA) leakage and post-storage growth were well-correlated. Plants stored at or above 25C became etiolated during storage, while storage at 15C or below did not cause etiolation. Temperatures at or below 15C did not affect subsequent growth rate of chrysanthemum plants. Storage at 20C and above caused a reduction in post-storage growth rate following 2 days of storage.

Free access

H.F. Wilkins, W.E. Healy, and K.L. Grueber

For chrysanthemum [Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura], the hypothesis that a 12-hr 5C or 13C dark treatment could be used in conjunction with a 12-hr 27, 21, 17, or 13C light treatment for rapid flowering when applied during certain developmental stages was valid. Flowering of `Bright Golden Anne', planted on 23 Sept., was not delayed by 12-hr light/12-hr dark growth chamber treatments of 21/5C or 27/13C (day/night) if treated from planting (P) of the rooted cutting to the start of short days (SD), 3 weeks after start of SD to visible bud (VB) (SD + 3 to VB), or from VB to flower (F) when compared to the glasshouse control plants grown at 21/18C. Plants responded similarly if grown at 13/13C or 21/21C, but flowering was delayed compared to the 17/17C glass house control. Delays were absent, however, when 13/13C was used from P to SD, SD + 3 to VB, or when 17/13 or 21/13C was used from VB to F.

Free access

Jason R. Tutty, Peter R. Hicklenton, David N. Kristie, and Kenneth B. McRae

Stem elongation rate (SER) in Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura was determined in light and in darkness under various temperature regimes. Stem growth as measured with linear voltage displacement transducers on plants in growth chambers. Under alternating 11-hour days and 13-hour nights, SER was strongly temperature dependent and showed patterns that were characteristic of the particular photoperiod-temperature regime under which the plants were grown. Total daily elongation was similar at constant 18.3C and at 11.5C days and 24C nights, but was much greater at 25.7C days and 12C nights. SER was rhythmic in continuous light with a period of slightly less than 24 hours. In continuous darkness, however, SER declined rapidly and the rhythm disappeared within 11 hours. Low-temperature pulses (a rapid decline from 18.3C to 8.3C) applied for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 11 hours during the day induced an immediate decline in SER followed by a slow recovery and peak shortly after the end of the pulse. Total diurnal stem growth declined with increasing pulse length, although short (2-hour) duration pulses apparently had little effect on growth. The results are discussed in relation to the influence of day and night temperature differentials (DIF) on stem growth in Dendranthema.

Free access

M.J. McMahon, J.W. Kelly, D.R. Decoteau, R.E. Young, and R.K. Pollock

`Spears' (nonpinched and pinched) and `Yellow Mandalay' (pinched) chrysanthemums were grown in growth chambers equipped with panels filled with liquids that served as spectral filters. Light quality was altered by reducing blue light, increasing red: far-red (R: FR) light, or reducing R: FR. Control panels did not selectively alter light transmission. Photosynthetic photon flux was the same in all chambers. All plants grown under increased R: FR filters had reduced height, reduced internode length, and increased chlorophyll content compared to controls. Reduction in blue light decreased chlorophyll content of pinched plants compared to controls. Pinched plants grown under increased R: FR light and !ong days developed fewer nodes than controls due to the formation of abnormal capitula; the controls and plants from the other treatments developed more nodes before producing similarly abnormal capitula. Stem diameter and leaf area did not differ due to treatments.

Free access

Kiffnie M. Holt and Paul H. Jennings

Rooted chrysanthemum cuttings of five cultivars were transplanted into 6 1/2″ pots and greenhouse-grown for 7 weeks under natural daylength conditions. Plants were pinched back twice, on the 3rd week and the 5th week following transplanting. At 7 weeks, plants were arranged in a complete randomized-block design with four plants per cultivar per treatment and three replications. Spacing of the pots was kept constant through the duration of the experiment. The chemical group was sprayed with 2500 ppm B-Nine until run-off on the first day of treatment. The mechanical group was brushed 40 times, twice a day, for 5 weeks. The brushing mechanism was adjusted daily to account for growth so as to stimulate only the top 2 to 3 inches of the plant. Measurements of all plants were taken on the first and last day of the mechanical treatment. Data collected included height, internode length, and leaf area. Plants were then allowed to flower under the naturally shortening daylength, and the flowering date was recorded. The chemical and mechanically treated plants were shorter than the controls with a greater response occurring with the cultivars `Emily' and `Cheery Emily', which had a more open and upright growth habit. Cultivar response differences and effects on internode length, leaf area, and flowering date were noted and will be discussed.

Free access

Hiram G. Larew and James C. Locke

The repellency and toxicity of a petroleum-based proprietary horticultural oil, Sunspray 6E Plus, was tested against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vapor-ariorum (Westwood), on greenhouse-grown chrysanthemums [Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura cv. Iceberg]. A 2% (v/v) aqueous spray repelled adult whiteflies for at least 11 days after spraying and it was toxic to newly hatched and third stage larval whiteflies. No phytotoxicity was observed when four weekly sprays of 1%, 2%, and 4% oil were applied.

Free access

David A. Gilbertz

Spray applications of 15 or 30 mg uniconazole or 30 or 60 mg paclobutrazol/liter (20 ml/1.5-liter pot) were sprayed 0, 2, or 4 weeks after pinching of Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura `Bright Golden Anne' plants. Plants were shorter the earlier growth regulators were applied. Plants were more responsive to uniconazole, requiring paclobutrazol at up to four times the uniconazole concentration to achieve the same height control. Time to flowering was also lengthened the earlier applications were made, up to 3 days compared to nontreated plants. Flower diameter was only minimally affected by the treatments. Chemical names used (2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-1,1-dimethylethyl)-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-ol(-paclobutrazol);(E)-l(p-chlorophenyl) -4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl-1-penten-3-ol) (uniconazole).

Free access

Nihal C. Rajapakse and John W. Kelly

The role of light quality and quantity in regulating growth of vegetative Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura was evaluated using CuSO4 solutions and water (control) as spectral filters. Copper sulfate filters increased the red (R): far-red (FR) and the blue (B): R ratios (R = 600 to 700 nm; FR = 700 to 800 nm; B = 400 to 500 urn) of transmitted light. Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) under 4%, 8% and 16% CuSO4 filters was reduced 26%, 36%, and 47%, respectively, from natural irradiance in the greenhouse, which averaged ≈ 950 μmol·m-2·s-1. Control treatments were shaded with Saran plastic film to ensure equal PPF as the corresponding C uSO4 chamber. Average daily maxima and minima were 26 ± 3C and 16 ± 2C. At the end of the 4-week experimental period, average height and internode length of plants grown under CuSO4 filters were ≈ 40% and 34% shorter than those of plants grown under control filter. Reduction in plant height and internode length was apparent within 1 week after the beginning of treatment. Total leaf area (LA) was reduced by 32% and leaf size (LS) was reduced by 24% under CuSO4 filters. Specific leaf weight (SLW) was higher under CuSO4 filters than for the controls. Irradiance transmitted through CuSO4 filters reduced fresh and dry leaf weights by 30%. Fresh and dry stem weights of plants grown under CuSO4 filters were 60% lower than those of controls. Relative dry matter accumulation into leaves was increased in plants grown under CuSO4 filters while it was reduced in stems. A single application of GA3 before irradiation partially overcame the height reduction under CuSO4 filters, suggesting GA biosynthesis/action may be affected by light quality. Our results imply that alteration of light quality could be used to control chrysanthemum growth as an alternative method to conventional control by chemical growth regulators. Chemical names used: gibberellic acid (GA)