Mating disruption of codling moth using codlemone pheromoneemitting twist-ties or cards has become a standard practice in many orchards. This study was initiated to determine the effectiveness of NoMate CM EC, a spray formulation of codlemone pheromone. Treatments were applied 20–21 Apr. 1995 to plots measuring 99 × 244 m of 15-year-old `Golden Delicious' apple trees on seedling rootstock. Trees were spaced 3.7 × 5.5 m and treatments were made in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Whole trees were sprayed to run-off using a handgun. Treatments were 20.2 g a.i. NoMate CM EC/h and a watered sprayed control. Two pheromonebaited, sticky traps were placed in each replicate to monitor codling moth activity. Moth counts were made 3 days after treatment and continued twice weekly for 4 weeks. Results indicated very little moth activity for the first 14 days of the study in plots treated with NoMate CM EC when compared to the control. However, after the first two weeks differences between treatments were not significant.
Efficacy of using radio frequency (RF) at 27.12 MHz was evaluated as a postharvest quarantine treatment against fifth instars of the codling moth [Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)], in apples (Malus sylvestris). Tests under the given conditions demonstrated that the energy fields between the RF unit's electrodes were neither predictable nor uniform. Moving fruit submerged in water during RF exposure may improve uniformity, but pulp temperatures varied considerably among fruit, among sites on the same fruit, and at different depths within the same site. As a result of these inconsistencies, quarantine efficacy was not obtained either using a range of final average temperatures from 40 to 68 °C (104.0 to 154.4 °F) or at holding times up to 20 minutes. We concluded it would be difficult to obtain the appropriate parameters for treatment efficacy and fruit quality maintenance using this technology under these conditions.
The two-component quarantine treatment was shown to be effective against at least 7,000 codling moth (Cydia pomonella) fifth instar larvae infesting `Fuji' apples (Malus × domestica) in each required confirmation test involving two sizes of cartons. After cold storage for 55 days at 36 °F (2.2 °C), infested fruit were placed in vented cartons, either 20-lb [7 × 12 × 12.5 inches (17.8 × 30.5 × 31.8 cm)], or 40-lb [12 × 12.5 × 20.5 inches (30.5 × 31.8 × 52.1 cm)], then fumigated with 0.056 oz/ft3 (56 g·m-3) of methyl bromide for 2 hours at 50 °F (10.0 °C). After each treatment, either no survivors were present or no moribund larvae survived beyond the first week of post evaluation of the larvae.
Residues and the toxic effects of methyl bromide (MB) were determined in fumigation tests with six cultivars of nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. var. nectarina (Ah.) Maxim.]. `Fantasia', `Firebrite', and `Summer Grand' were treated in wooden field bins in a commercial facility, whereas `May Fire', `May Glo', and `May Diamond' were fumigated in smaller fiberglass chambers. The treatment of 48 g MB/m3 for 2 hours at 21C and normal atmospheric pressure with a load factor of 50% (179 kg·m-3) was that proposed for quarantine eradication of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.). The appearance of the fruit, as well as the soluble solids content, were not affected by the MB fumigation; however, ripening of `May Grand' and `Firebrite' was delayed slightly. Sorption of MB was 55%. Desorption rates of organic bromide were not significantly different among the six treated cultivars; all fruits contained <0.001 μg·g-1 after 7 days of storage at 2.5C. Inorganic bromide residues in all treated fruits were <8.0 μg·g-1.
Quarantine regulations require domestic sweet cherries (Prunus avium) exported to Japan to be treated to control codling moth [Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)]. The current procedure, methyl bromide fumigation, may be discontinued because of health, safety, and environmental concerns. To examine a potential alternative method, `Bing' sweet cherries were each infested with a codling moth larva, submerged in a 38 °C water bath for 6 minutes pretreatment, then exposed to various temperatures generated by radio frequency and held at that temperature for different times: 50 °C for 6 minutes, 51.6 °C for 4 minutes, 53.3 °C for 0.5 minutes, and 54.4 °C for 0.5 minutes. Insect mortality was evaluated 24 hours after treatment and fruit quality was evaluated after treatment and after 7 and 14 days of storage at 1 °C. No larvae survived at the 50 and 51.6 °C treatments. Fruit color of non-infested cherries was darkened as temperature increased. Stem color was severely impacted after 7 days of storage, even in a warm water bath of 38 °C for 6 minutes, as was fruit firmness at the same treatment. Fruit quality loss increased after 14 days of storage, compared to after 7 days of storage. The amount of pitting and bruising of cherries increased with temperature and again this increase was more evident after 14 days of storage.
A quarantine treatment was developed against codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars ('Garnet,' `Brooks,' `Tulare,' `Lapins,' and `Sweetheart') exported to Japan. Specific procedures were required to demonstrate treatment efficacy. Dose-mortality responses were measured for each cultivar at regularly incremented concentrations of methyl bromide for 2 hours at 43 °F (6 °C) compared to the dose-mortality curve of an approved cultivar under the same conditions. Based on the overlap of confidence limits, there were no significant differences between new and approved cultivars in group comparisons. In a confirmation test of efficacy, fumigation with methyl bromide at 0.064 oz/ft3 (64 g·m-3) for 2 hours at 43 °F resulted in complete mortality for all codling moth larvae in the treated cultivars. By convention, fumigation at this or the following concentrations [0.048 oz/ft3 (48 g·m-3) for 2 h at 54 to 63 °F (12 to 17 °C); 0.040 oz/ft3 (40 g·m-3) for 2 h at 63 to 72 °F (17 to 22 °C); 0.032 oz/ft3 (32 g·m-3) for 2 h at 72 °F (22 °C) or above] were considered as an efficacious quarantine treatment against the codling moth in sweet cherries. Except for `Brooks,' fumigation did not significantly influence fruit firmness, soluble solids, or titratable acids. Reduction in fruit and stem quality was more associated with temperature than with methyl bromide concentration. `Tulare,' `Lapins,' and `Sweetheart' could be fumigated with minimal change in fruit quality.
Wooden fruit bins are a source of diapausing codling moth and postharvest pathogenic fungi. The redistribution of codling moths within bins is a problem where codling moth populations are being controlled by areawide codling moth sterile release programs, mating disruption programs, or both. Laboratory and fumigation chamber trials were carried out to determine the impact of relatively low levels of carbon dioxide on late-instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) and two postharvest fruit pathogens, Penicillium expansum Link ex Thom and Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. Fumigation of diapausing codling moth with 40% CO2 in laboratory trials resulted in over 60% mortality after only 6 days of exposure and mortality increased with time of exposure. Significant mortality (68%) of diapausing codling moth larvae occurred after 14 days of exposure in the laboratory to 13% CO2 and a mean of 88% mortality was recorded after fumigation for 20 days. A significant number of P. expansum (46%) spores failed to germinate after laboratory exposure to 13% CO2 for 12 and 18 days respectively. Close to 100% of the P. expansum spores failed to germinate by day 20. When diapausing codling moth larvae and spores from both plant pathogens were placed in wooden fruit bins and fumigated for 21 days at 13% CO2, 75% of the diapausing codling moths died and 80% of the P. expansum spores failed to germinate. No effect on B. cinerea was observed.
Confirmatory tests were performed on a two-component quarantine treatment against the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for seven apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] cultivars ('Delicious,' `Golden Delicious,' `Braeburn,' `Fuji,' `Gala,' `Jonagold,' and `Granny Smith') intended for export to Japan and Korea. Treatment consists of a 55-day cold storage at 40 °F (2.2 °C) or below, followed by a 2-hour methyl bromide fumigation (0.056 oz/ft3 or 56 g·m-3) at 50 °F (10 °C). No eggs or larvae survived this treatment. Comparison tests were conducted on all cultivars to demonstrate no difference in insect responses between a previously accepted cultivar and proposed cultivars. Concentration-mortality responses were determined for each of the components and no statistical differences were found in the regression slopes of pest mortality with controlling variable (either cold exposure or fumigation) among all cultivars. Descriptive mathematical models, developed for the effects of cold storage on egg mortality and for methyl bromide fumigation on larvae mortality, were sigmoid curve equations.
Insecticides were compared for control of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta), and effects on european red mites (Panonychus ulmi) and predatory mites (Neoseiulus fallacis) in `Red Delicious' apple trees (Malus ×domestica). Ten days after treatment with azinphosmethyl, celerylooper (Anagrapha falcifera) nuclear polyhedrosis virus, rotenone-pyrethrin, or codling moth granulosis virus, fruit damage by larval codling moth and oriental fruit moth was significantly less than trees treated with Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki or water (control). Trees treated with azinphosmethyl or celery looper nuclear polyhedrosis virus had fewer damaged fruit where larvae exited than did other treatments. By 21 days after the last treatment, all treatments had significantly more wormy or damaged fruit than did azinphosmethyl. At 10 days after treatment, the two viruses were more deleterious to codling moth than to oriental fruit moth causing a <1:3 ratio of these larvae compared to >3:1 ratio for the other treatments. On 16 June, 100 predatory mites were released onto the trunk of each tree. The minimum ratio of predatory mites to european red mites (>1:10) that favors biological control of european red mites occurred in all treatments by 14 July, except those treated with azinphosmethyl or rotenone-pyrethrin that had significantly more cumulative mite days of european red mites than the other treatments. The use of azinphosmethyl delayed biological control of the european red mites until 27 July whereas rotenone-pyrethrin treatment never attained biological control of the mites.
Durations of ultrasound treatments were evaluated for efficacy in removing or destroying external pests of apples (Malus sylvestris var domestica). Egg hatch of codling moth (Cydia pomonella; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was inversely related to time of ultrasound exposure, although egg mortality was less than 60% after 45 min of treatment. Mortality of twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae; Acari: Tetranychidae), and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis; Thysanoptera: Thripidae), was directly related to ultrasound durations; adding detergent to the ultrasound bath increased treatment efficacy. Ultrasound did not remove san jose scale (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus; Homoptera: Diaspididae), from the fruit surface. Ultrasound, which can be incorporated in the packing line, shows promise as a postharvest phytosanitation treatment against external pests.