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Kalpana Sharma, Erica Goss, and Ariena H.C. van Bruggen

Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2, the causal agent of geranium bacterial wilt, entered the United States through Florida in 2000 ( Buck and Ono, 2012 ) and 2003 ( Momol, 2006 ), respectively. The genus Cordyline consists of woody monocotyledonous

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A. Hagiladi and A.A. Watad

Potted Cordyline terminalis L. `Prins Albert', a foliage plant, was treated with foliar sprays or growth medium drenches of paclobutrazol for plant growth control. Paclobutrazol effectively reduced shoot length measured 4 months following application, the drench being more effective than the spray. Application of paclobutrazol at 200 ppm by either method gave a desirable compact and marketable product. Drench applications at 1000 ppm promoted side-shoot formation. Leaf morphology was altered from an elongated to a more oval form as the paclobutrazol concentration increased, but leaf count was not affected by paclobutrazol, except for the highest drench concentration, which reduced leaf count by 10%. Chemical name used: β– [(4-chlorophenyl)methyl] –α– (1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).

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Svoboda V. Pennisi and Dennis B. McConnell

Detection of cuticular crystals in the 14 species of Dracaena examined indicated that they are probably ubiquitous throughout the genus and may permit rapid separation of dracaenas from plants with similar leaves such as the cordylines (Cordyline sp.). Dracaena species of the dragon tree group deposit the greatest quantity of uniformly small cuticular crystals. However, the distinction between individual species within this grouping, based solely on crystal numbers and size, is not sufficient for taxonomic separation. All other species of Dracaena studied did display species-specific quantities and sizes of cuticular crystals. This, in combination with characteristics of the leaf epidermis, could serve as part of a taxonomic key to the genus.

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Trent Y. Hata, Arnold H. Hara, Mike A. Nagao, and Benjamin K.S. Hu

Frangipani (Plumeria hybrid `Donald Angus') cuttings immersed in hot water (49C for 10 min) followed by 0.8% indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) basal treatment (hot water + IBA) had greater root length and weight compared to the nontreated control, hot water, or IBA treatment alone. Greater percentage of rooting and number of roots per cutting were observed for hot-water-treated + IBA-treated cuttings compared to the non-treated control and hot-water treatment alone. In a second study, Dracaena fragrans (L.) Ker-Gawl. `Massangeana', D. deremensis Engl. `Warneckii', D. deremensis Engl. `Janet Craig', D. marginata Lam., and cape jasmine (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) cuttings displayed results similar to those observed with Plumeria cuttings. In addition to enhancing rooting, hot water + IBA also stimulated the number of shoots per cutting on anthurium (Anthurium andraeanum Andre `Marian Seefurth'), croton [Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume var. pictum (Lodd.) Mull. Arg.], D. marginata, D. fragrans, Plumeria, and ti (Cordyline terminalis `Ti') cuttings.

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Mari Marutani, John Brown, Mark Acosta, Joseph Sablan, Sheeka Afaisen, and James McConnell

A grant to construct a “Model Farm” on Guam and the Virgin Islands was approved in 2000 by the USDA/CSREES/Initiative for Future Agriculture and Food Systems Program. The main goal was to establish an integrated model farm that had potential benefits for small agricultural enterprises operated by Asian-Pacific and Caribbean Islanders. University of Guam Triton Farm was established on 3.75 acres (1.5 ha) of the Agricultural Experiment Station. Initially we conducted a soil survey, and established windbreaks/hedgerows. We also built the foundation for aquaculture/aquaponic system, field irrigation systems, and animal production facilities. Then, we planted long-term fruit and ornamental plants while growing short-term vegetable crops for quick returns. Currently we raise tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), goats (Capra hercus) and layer-chickens (Gallus gallus). We grow banana (Musa spp.), calamansi (X Citrofortunello mitis, hot peppers (Capsicum spp.), cucumbers (Cucumis sativus), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), eggplants (Solanum melongena), and Ti-leaf (Cordyline terminalis). We also try to develop value-added products using local produce. Occasionally we investigate other potential commodities and operational schemes for the farm. These must be suitable for Guam's agro-climate and social and economic structure. We focus on conservation of natural materials, composting, and sustainable agriculture. Education and outreach activity is also an important component of the farm to disseminate technologies and to educate young children about farming.

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James A. Schrader, Christopher J. Currey, Nicholas J. Flax, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

We evaluated emerging biopolymer horticultural products that provide fertilizer nutrients to plants (fertilizing biocontainers, pelletized biopolymer fertilizer, and biopolymer fertilizer spikes) for their effectiveness during greenhouse production and garden growth of floriculture crops, and during postproduction culture of container ornamentals. Greenhouse experiments (in 4.5-inch containers) and garden trials were performed with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), petunia (Petunia ×hybrida), and marigold (Tagetes patula). Postproduction experiments were performed with 12-inch hanging baskets containing lobelia (Lobelia erinus), trailing petunia (Calibrachoa ×hybrida), and petunia, and with 13-inch patio planters containing zonal geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum), spikes (Cordyline indivisa), bidens (Bidens ferulifolia), and trailing petunia. Although slightly less effective than synthetic controlled-release fertilizer (CRF), all three nutrient-containing biopolymer horticultural products were sufficient and suitable for providing fertilizer nutrients to plants grown in containers and in garden soil. Results of the postproduction experiment provided proof-of-concept for the effectiveness and potential of biopolymer fertilizer spikes as a sustainable method for providing fertilizer nutrients to containerized plants. The current formulation of pelletized biopolymer fertilizer was somewhat more effective for vegetable crops (pepper and tomato) than for floriculture crops (marigold and petunia). For plants produced in 4.5-inch containers, the combination of the fertilizing biocontainer with no additional fertilizer in the greenhouse, then burying the fertilizing container beneath the plant to degrade and provide nutrients in the garden was very effective. Biopolymer horticultural products represent a promising alternative to petroleum-based plastic containers and synthetic fertilizers. Adoption of some or all of these technologies could improve the environmental sustainability of the horticulture industry without reducing productivity or efficiency, and without increasing labor intensity.

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Pedro García-Caparrós, Olga González-Salmerón, Mónica Pérez-Saiz, Raquel Calatrava, María Teresa Lao, Rosa María Chica, and Gumersindo De la Cruz

Cordyline terminalis under high-light conditions ( Gaurav et al., 2015 ). On the other hand, the highest rate of growth of baby rubber plants, which occurred under net house with antipest mesh and thermo-reflective aluminised screen, also resulted in the

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Mohammed Elsayed El-Mahrouk, Mossad K. Maamoun, Antar Nasr EL-Banna, Soliman A. Omran, Yaser Hassan Dewir, and Salah El-Hendawy

-Mahrouk et al., 2007 ) and Cordyline fruticosa ( Dewir et al., 2015 ). Somatic embryos of strawberry tree cultured on MS medium without PGRs showed the highest somatic embryo conversion (96%) into plantlets with well-developed roots ( El-Mahrouk et al

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Donald R. Hodel

and xylem) dispersed throughout the stem rather than in two concentric rings with a cylindrical primary cambium between them. Palms can be distinguished from other palm-like monocots, such as beaucarnea and nolina ( Nolina spp.), cordyline ( Cordyline

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Juanxu Liu, Min Deng, Richard J. Henny, Jianjun Chen, and Jiahua Xie

multiplication of Dracaena deremensis Acta Hort. 54 83 92 Debergh, P.C. 1976 An in vitro technique for the vegetative multiplication of chimaeral plants of Dracaena and Cordyline Acta Hort. 64 17 19