The citrus industry in California is changing, and growers are planting more easy-peeling, seedless, and nice-tasting mandarins. Our industry tries to develop new early- and late-season mandarin cultivars to be competitive in the global mandarin market. Seventeen satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marco.) cultivars were top-worked onto 4–6 Valencia orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] as interstocks and Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] as rootstocks in 30 May 2001 near Santa Paula, Calif. All trees set the first crop in Fall 2003. Fruit maturity of all cultivars was measured based on °Brix level, percent acid, and S:A ratio on a weekly basis since the first week of Sept. 2004. Five cultivars, `Armstrong', `Kuno Wase', `Miyagawa', `S9' and `Xie-Shan' (`Wakiyama'), are very early- or early-season cultivars. A small-scale degreening experiment with 72 h treatment of 0.5 mg·L–1 ethylene with fruit harvested on 6 Oct. 2004 also showed the rind color of all five cultivars could be enhanced nicely. `Miyagawa' had very intense internal orange flesh color visible in the second week of Sept. 2004, comparing with other cultivars. All these five cultivars could potentially become early-season, completely seedless, and easy-peeling satsuma cultivars in California. `Miyagawa' and `Xis-Shan' could potentially be harvested as early as from late September to early October in the central coastal region and from late August to mid-September in the San Joaquin Valley. Both cultivars should command a high price when there is no seedless mandarin in the market.
Monte L. Nesbitt, N.R. McDaniel, Robert C. Ebel, W.A. Dozier, and David G. Himelrick
Several microsprinkler treatments were tested on 5-year-old satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees to compare survivability of trunks and scaffold limbs in severe freezes. Three damaging freeze events occurred during winter, with two in 1995–96 and one in 1996–97. Air temperature dropped to –9.4, –5.6, and –6.7 °C, respectively. Almost 90% of the foliage was dead on the control plants after the first freezing event and 98% after the second. A single microsprinkler 1.6 m high in the canopy delivering 90.8 L·h–1 reduced injury; only 54% of the canopy was dead after the first freeze and 71% after the second. There was slightly more shoot-tip dieback on the plants in the microsprinkler treatments than on the control plants after the first two freezes. The amount of limb breakage by ice was minor. The third freeze killed 34% of the canopy in the control plants, but only 26% in the plants in the microsprinkler treatments. Use of microsprinklers increased yield in 1996, but yield for all treatments was very low. Yield for all treatments fully recovered in 1997, averaging 153 kg/tree. Although no death of scaffold limbs or trunks occurred, these results demonstrate that microsprinkler irrigation reduces damage to foliage and increases yield somewhat in severe freezes.
Monte L. Nesbitt, N.R. McDaniel, Robert C. Ebel, W.A. Dozier, and David G. Himelrick
Several microsprinkler treatments were tested on 5-year-old satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees to compare survivability of trunks and scaffold limbs in severe freezes. Three damaging freeze events occurred during winter, with two in 1995-96 and one in 1996-97. Air temperature dropped to -9.4, -5.6, and -6.7 °C, respectively. Almost 90% of the foliage was dead on the control plants after the first freezing event and 98% after the second. A single microsprinkler 1.6 m high in the canopy delivering 90.8 L·h-1 reduced injury; only 54% of the canopy was dead after the first freeze and 71% after the second. There was slightly more shoot-tip dieback on the plants in the microsprinkler treatments than on the control plants after the first two freezes. The amount of limb breakage by ice was minor. The third freeze killed 34% of the canopy in the control plants, but only 26% in the plants in the microsprinkler treatments. Use of microsprinklers increased yield in 1996, but yield for all treatments was very low. Yield for all treatments fully recovered in 1997, averaging 153 kg/tree. Although no death of scaffold limbs or trunks occurred, these results demonstrate that microsprinkler irrigation reduces damage to foliage and increases yield somewhat in severe freezes.
Jing-Tian Ling, Nobumasa Nito, Masao Iwamasa, and Hisato Kunitake
Embryos were obtained from unfertilized and undeveloped seeds of satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marc.) cultured on a modified Murashige and Tucker (MT) medium. Embryogenic callus was induced from the hypocotyl region of the embryos. The callus was successfully maintained through subculturing on MT medium with 185 μm ade-nine, 2.8 μm GA3 and 400 mg malt extract/liter, solidified with Gelrite. Somatic embryogenesis occurred from callus subculture on medium containing 50 g lactose/liter and in the absence of plant growth regulators. Somatic embryos developed into plants on medium with sucrose and GA3. Protoplasts isolated from this callus produced somatic embryos through colony formation: subsequently, normal, entire plants were regenerated.
M. Agustí, V. Almela, M. Aznar, M. El-Otmani, and J. Pons
The butylglycol ester of 2,4-DP increased final fruit size in `Owari Satsuma' mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). The response magnitude depended on the concentration applied and treatment date. When applied at the end of physiological drop, 50 mg·liter-1 was the most effective treatment for increasing fruit size. Peel density and firmness also were improved. Because no fruit thinning occurred, this auxin seemed to stimulate fruit growth. Chemical name used: 2,4-dichlorophenoxypropionic acid (2,4-DP).
Christopher J. Clark, Annette C. Richardson, and Ken B. Marsh
Whole-fruit proton magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Markovich cv. Miho Wase) during a 15-week period commencing 10 weeks after anthesis and continuing to maturity, and at 6 weeks after anthesis the following season. Images with long repetition times (>1600 ms) and short echo times (20 ms) provided the clearest details of anatomical changes in the peel (flavedo, albedo) and vascular system, while those with similar repetition times but longer echo times (120 ms) were best for viewing juice sac morphology within pulp segments. At 6 weeks after anthesis, images of fruits of slightly different physiological ages highlighted rapid changes in the vascular bundles and albedo tissue at this stage of development. Variation in the relaxation measurements, T1 and T2, was determined from quantitative MR images of the juice sacs in equatorial slices, and images of expressed juice from whole fruit. Seasonal measurements of T1 determined in situ (1760 ms) were significantly greater than those in juice (1413 ms). By contrast, there was no mean seasonal difference between in situ T2 measurements (360 ms) and those for juice (332 ms). No associations between trends in the MR data and total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and sugar and organic acid composition of the juice were established. Cell structure is identified as a hindrance in the use of quantitative MR imaging for probing compositional changes in solution in serial imaging studies.
Benjamin L. Campbell, Robert G. Nelson, Robert C. Ebel, William A. Dozier, John L. Adrian, and Brandon R. Hockema
Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu) have been produced intermittently along the Gulf Coast for over a century. However, very little is known about the market potential for this citrus fruit in today's consumer markets. This study evaluated consumer preferences for seven external attributes over a range of levels: price ($1.07, $2.18, or $4.39/kg), color (green-yellow, yellow-orange, or orange), size (5.08, 6.35, or 7.62 cm in diameter), seediness (0, 3, or 7 seeds), blemishes (0, 1.91, or 3 cm in diameter), production region label (Alabama or U.S.A.), and organic production (yes or no). Consumers from grocery stores in nine cities in Alabama and Georgia were asked to evaluate 20 photographs of various combinations of these attribute levels using a seven-point intention-to-buy scale. 605 useable surveys were collected and a conjoint analysis was conducted to determine the strength of preference for the attribute levels and the relative importance for attributes. Three consumer segments were identified by cluster analysis of strengths of preferences: the no-blemish segment (37% of sample), the price-sensitive segment (23% of sample), and the no-seeds segment (41% of sample). A multinomial logit analysis identified several demographic, socioeconomic, and usage variables as significant determinants of segment membership.
R.C. Ebel, W.A. Dozier, B. Hockema, F.M. Woods, R. Thomas, B.S. Wilkins, M. Nesbitt, and R. McDaniel
This study was conducted to determine fruit quality of Satsuma mandarin Citrus unshiu, Marc. `Owari' grown on the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Soluble solids increased linearly and titratable acidity decreased quadratically during October and November for the four sampling years. There was no significant interaction between sampling date and year. There was a significant year effect for titratable acidity, but not soluble solids or their ratio. A 10:1 soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio was observed on 10 Nov. Variation in fruit weight corresponded with cropload. Fruit weight increased during the sampling period due to an increase in fruit length since there was no change in width. Peel color was yellow-orange by 10 Nov., with many fruit still exhibiting patches of green color. Because of some green color present in the peel, the fruit would have to be degreened for successful marketing in U.S. retail chain stores.
R.C. Ebel, B.L. Campbell, M.L. Nesbitt, W.A. Dozier, J.K. Lindsey, and B.S. Wilkins
Estimates of long-term freeze-risk aid decisions regarding crop, cultivar, and rootstock selection, cultural management practices that promote cold hardiness, and methods of freeze protection. Citrus cold hardiness is mostly a function of air temperature, but historical weather records typically contain only daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) air temperatures. A mathematical model was developed that used Tmax and Tmin to estimate air temperature every hour during the diurnal cycle; a cold-hardiness index (CHI500) was calculated by summing the hours ≤10°C for the 500 h before each day; and the CHI500 was regressed against critical temperatures (Tc) that cause injury. The CHI500 was calculated from a weather station located within 0.1 km of an experimental grove and in the middle of the satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) industry in southern Alabama. Calculation of CHI500 was verified by regressing a predicted CHI500 using Tmax and Tmin, to a measured CHI500 calculated using air temperatures measured every hour for 4 winter seasons (1999-2003). Predicted CHI500 was linearly related to measured CHI500 (r 2 = 0.982). However, the slope was a little low such that trees with a CHI500 = 400, near the maximum cold-hardiness level achieved in this study, had predicted Tc that was 0.5 °C lower than measured Tc. Predicted and measured Tc were similar for nonhardened trees (CHI500 = 0). The ability of predicted Tc to estimate freeze injury was determined in 18 winter seasons where freeze injury was recorded. During injurious freeze events, predicted Tc was higher than Tmin except for a freeze on 8 Mar. 1996. In some freezes where the difference in Tc and Tmin was <0.5 °C there were no visible injury symptoms. Injury by the freeze on 8 Mar. 1996 was due, in part, to abnormally rapid deacclimation because of defoliation by an earlier freeze on 4-6 Feb. the same year. A freeze rating scale was developed that related the difference in Tc and Tmin to the extent of injury. Severe freezes were characterized by tree death (Tc - Tmin > 3.0 °C), moderate freezes by foliage kill and some stem dieback (1.0 °C ≤ Tc - Tmin ≤ 3.0 °C), and slight freezes by slight to no visible leaf injury (Tc - Tmin < 1.0 °C). The model was applied to Tmax and Tmin recorded daily from 1948 through 2004 to estimate long-term freeze-risk for economically damaging freezes (severe and moderate freeze ratings). Economically damaging freezes occurred 1 out of 4 years in the 56-year study, although 8 of the 14 freeze years occurred in two clusters, the first 5 years in the 1960s and 1980s. Potential modification of freeze-risk using within-tree microsprinkler irrigation and more cold-hardy cultivars was discussed.
Amílcar M.M. Duarte, Amparo García-Luis, Rosa Victoria Molina, Consuelo Monerri, Vicente Navarro, Sergio G. Nebauer, Manuel Sánchez-Perales, and Jose Luis Guardiola
A winter gibberellic acid (GA3) spray consistently reduced flower formation, but had a variable effect on the amount of first-grade fruit in the early harvest of `Clausellina' satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marc.), and in the long term these applications had no significant effect on the value of the crop. Auxin applications increased the amount of first grade-early harvested fruit, and increased crop value as compared to hand-thinned trees. No significant differences in yield or fruit grade could be found among the different auxin applications tried, namely an application of 20 mg·L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at flowering, or applications of 25 mg·L-1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), or 50 mg·L-1 2,4-dicholorophenoxypropionic acid (2,4-DP) at the end of fruitlet abscission. Apart from their effect on size, the auxin applications had only a marginal effect on fruit quality.