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Min Fan, Yike Gao, Yaohui Gao, Zhiping Wu, Hua Liu, and Qixiang Zhang

Chrysanthemums ( Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat.) are common flowers that possess substantial aesthetic value. They are cultivated all over the world and are important economic ornamentals that comprise a considerable proportion of the flower

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M. Kate Lee and Marc W. van Iersel

As a result of the decreasing availability of high-quality irrigation water, salinity tolerance of greenhouse crops is of increasing importance. Saline irrigation water can have many negative effects on plants, but also has the potential to act as a growth regulator because of its ability to reduce plant height. To determine the effects of NaCl in the irrigation water on the growth, physiology, and nutrient uptake of chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum ×morifolium Ramat.), plants were watered with solutions with different NaCl concentrations (0, 1, 3, 6, or 9 g·L−1). Plants receiving 9 g·L−1 NaCl had a 76% reduction in shoot dry weight, a 90% reduction in stomatal conductance (g S), and a 4-day delay in flowering compared with control plants. Chrysanthemums receiving 1 g·L−1 NaCl had a 4-cm reduction in height with only a small reduction in shoot dry weight. Stomatal conductance and transpiration were reduced by more than 60% by NaCl concentrations of 1 g·L−1 as compared with control plants. The combination of a small reduction in dry weight and a large decrease in transpiration resulted in increased water use efficiency when plants received 1 g·L−1 NaCl. Concentrations of 3 g·L−1 NaCl or higher resulted in poor-quality plants either as a result of wilting of the leaves (3 g·L−1) or severely stunted plants (6 and 9 g·L−1). Our findings indicate that chrysanthemums can be grown successfully with 1 g·L−1 NaCl in the irrigation water without negative impacts on plant quality. This has important implications for the greenhouse industry as the availability of nonsaline water decreases. Saline water may be more readily available and can have the added benefit of reduced plant height, which is an important quality characteristic for floriculture crops.

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Rida Shibli, L. Art Spomer, and Mary Ann Lila Smith

Osmotic adjustment in response to decreasing media water availability was observed for in vitro Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivars Bright Golden Anne, Deep Luv, and Lucido. Water stress was induced by increasing sorbitol (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 M), mannitol (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 M), and sucrose (30, 45, 60, 75, 90 g·l-1) concentrations in modified MS media (2 mg·l-1 BA and 0.1 mg·l-1 NAA). Osmotic adjustment was evidenced by a significant reduction in measured cell sap osmotic potential (R2 = 0.78, 0.96, 0.91 for sucrose, sorbitol, and mannitol respectively) in all cultivars. Shoot length, weighted density (apparent mass), and proliferation were significantly reduced by sorbitol and mannitol treatments. Sucrose reduced shoot proliferation, increased length, and had an inconsistent effect on weighted density. Cultures grown on media without hormones showed tremendous increase in root number up to 60 g·l-1 sucrose. Sorbitol had a negligible effect on rooting at 0.1 M but no roots developed at higher sorbitol concentrations or in any mannitol treatments. Plants transferred to a non-water-stress media after they had experienced in vitro water stress exhibited no change in osmotic properties from the stress treatments.

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Janni Bjerregaard Lund, Theo J. Blom, and Jesper Mazanti Aaslyng

Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Coral Charm’ during 3 weeks of daily treatments of 30 min each. se is based on the means of three plantings (n = 36). Regressions lines that were not significantly different were pooled (R con and FR con = 0.4), so data represent

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Susan E. Trusty, William B. Miller, and Dale Smith

In order to more fully understand flower growth and development, we are interested in carbohydrate partitioning and metabolism in floricultural crops. In recent work with Chrysanthemum, we noted the occurrence of several early-eluting carbohydrate peaks (as detected by HPLC with a resin-based column in the calcium form). These peaks were present in flowers and stems, and in lesser amounts in leaves. Acid hydrolysis of the unknowns liberated large amounts of fructose and much smaller amounts of glucose, indicating that these peaks are fructans, or medium chain-length fructose polymers. Fructans represented 10% and 25% of the carbohydrate in a 12:5:3 methanol: chloroform: water extract of leaves and stems, respectively. Flower petals were extracted with 95%. ethanol, then with water. Fructans accounted for more than 40'% of the water soluble carbohydrate in flower bud tissue. It is likely that fructans serve as a major reserve carbohydrate in Chrysanthemum. Additional studies are underway to better characterize flower petal fructans, and to understand their role in flower development.

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Terri Woods Starman

Single and multiple sprays of uniconazole at 0, 5, 10, or 20 mg·liter-1 were compared with daminozide sprays at 2500 mg·liter-1 applied twice for height control of Dendranthema × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura (Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat.) `Puritan' and `Favor'. A single uniconazole spray at 20 mg·liter-1 applied 2 weeks after pinching or two uniconazole applications at 10 mg·liter-1 applied 2 and 4 weeks after pinching were as effective as daminozide for reducing height. Drenches of uniconazole at 0, 0.025, 0.05, or 0.10 mg a.i./pot were compared with ancymidol drenches at 0.45 mg a.i./pot for controlling height of `Bright Golden Anne'. Although ancymidol was more effective, a 0.10-mg uniconazole drench adequately reduced height.

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Kimberly A. Williams and Paul V. Nelson

Soilless container root media have little capacity to retain P, and preplant amendments of triple superphosphate (TSP) and water-soluble fertilizer (WSF) P applications are readily leached from them. A soilless medium modified with Al2(SO4)3 was tested to reduce such P losses. Aluminum sulfate solutions were applied to a 70 sphagnum peat: 30 perlite (v/v) medium to result in 0.32, 0.96, and 1.92 kg Al/m3 and dried at 70C. Adsorption isotherms (25C, 0 to 500 mg P/liter) showed that P retention increased as the rate of Al addition increased. In a greenhouse study, plants of Dendranthema ×grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitamura `Sunny Mandalay' were grown in Al-modified media and an unmodified medium in factorial combination with P from preplant amendment of 0.1 kg TSP-P/m3, or P applied at each watering as WSF at rates of 5.5 or 21.8 mg P/liter. The two highest rates of Al were excessive and resulted in low pH and excessive soluble Al levels in the root medium solution early in the cropping cycle, which were detrimental to plant growth. When the root medium was modified with 0.32 kg Al/m3, soluble Al levels in medium solution were not significantly different than in the unmodified control. TSP-P that leached was substantially reduced by the addition of Al, yet sufficient P was released throughout the cropping cycle for adequate plant growth. Plants grown in Al-modified medium with 0.1 kg TSP-P/m3 did not differ from control plants in unmodified medium + 0.27 kg TSP-P/m3 and were larger than plants grown in unmodified medium + 0.1 kg TSP-P/m3. Aluminum modification of the root medium substantially reduced P leaching when used with WSF containing P. In addition, growth of plants in unmodified medium fertilized with 5.5 vs. 21.8 mg P/liter was similar.

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Lili Dong, Qi Wang, Feng Xiong, Na Liu, and ShuiMing Zhang

constructed by an alignment of MAX1 proteins from a taxonomically diverse set of species ( Fig. 1B ). The phylogenetic tree revealed that CmMAX1 was closest to NnMAX1. Fig. 1. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis of CmMAX1 in Chrysanthemum morifolium

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Anke van der Ploeg, Susana M.P. Carvalho, and Ep Heuvelink

: An integrated approach Wageningen Pers Wageningen, The Netherlands De Jong, J. 1978 Selection for wide temperature adaptation in Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat.) Hemsl. Neth. J. Agr. Sci. 26 110 118

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Yuan Zhang, Chen Wang, HongZheng Ma, and SiLan Dai

of chrysanthemum cultivar Jinbeidahong was used to develop the microsatellite-enriched libraries. Table 1. The name, petal type, flower color, and ploidy level of selected Chrysanthemum × morifolium cultivars used for the applicability test of