A naturally occurring mutant of Chamelaucium uncinatum Schauer (Geraldton wax) is described. It has double flowers with the staminodes transformed into petals. Pollen is exuded from the anthers but is not deposited on the pollen presenter in a lipid droplet, which is normal for the species. An anomalous secondary flower with petals, stamens, and gynoecium is present in the ovary.
Phosphine (PH3) is a potential alternative fumigant to methyl bromide for insect disinfestation of cut flowers. King protea (Protea cynaroides L.), tulip (Tulipa gesneriana `Apeldoorn'), kangaroo paw (Anigozanthos manglesii Hook.), and geraldton wax (Chamelaucium uncinatum `Purple Pride') were fumigated with PH3 at varying concentrations (100 to 8000 μL·L-1) for 2, 4, or 6 hours. Vase life was evaluated at 20 °C, 65% relative humidity, and constant illumination with a photosynthetically active radiation of 15 μmol·m-2·S-1. No significant change in vase life was observed for kangaroo paws after any of the PH3 fumigations. A 6-hour fumigation at 8000 μL·L-1 significantly reduced vase life in king protea, tulip, and geraldton wax flower. Geraldton wax flower and tulip were relatively sensitive to PH3, as they were damaged by 4000 μL·L-1 for 6 hours and 8000 μL·L-1 for 4 hours, respectively. Phosphine has potential as an insect disinfestation fumigant for king protea, tulip, and kangaroo paw at 4000 (μL·L-1 for 6 hours without affecting vase life or causing damage.
Five members of the Proteaceae and 13 Australian native cut flower cultivars were stored for 35 days under standard conditions at 1C to assess their ability to withstand long-term storage and transport. Protea cynaroides L., Leucadendron `Silvan Red', Leucospermum `Firewheel', Thryptomene calycina (Lindl.) Stapf., Telopea speciosissima R. Br., and Verticordia grandtiflora Endl. retained a vase life of at least 7 days after 21 days of storage. Leucospermum cordifolium Salisb. ex Knight, Protea neriifoli R. Br., Chamelaucium uncinatum `Alba', C. uncinatum `Purple Pride', Verticordia monadelpha Turcz., Verticordia plumosa (Desf.) Druce, and Verticordia nitens (Lindl.) Schau. suffered a decline in vase life ranging from 31% to 100% after 14 to 21 days of storage. Species of Verticordia and Chamelaucium were particularly susceptible to fungal infection. Anigozanthos pulcherrimus Hook. and the Anigozanthos cultivars Ruby Delight, Bush Harmony, Bush Haze, and Gold Fever all showed a significant reduction in vase life after 14 days of storage compared with unstored controls.
Postharvest longevity of some cut flowers is shortened by exposure to ethylene gas. Adverse effects of ethylene may be prevented by treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) gas. Responses of 14 different native Australian cut flowers to 1-MCP and ethylene applied at concentrations of 10 nL·L-1 and 10 μL·L-1, respectively, were examined. Each gas was applied alone for 12 hours at 20 °C and they were also applied in series. Vase lives of Ceratopetalum gummiferum, Chamelaucium uncinatum, Grevillea `Kay Williams' and `Misty Pink', Leptospermum petersonii, Telopea `Shady Lady', and Verticordia nitens were reduced by ethylene treatment. Treatment with 1-MCP generally protected these cut flowers against subsequent exposure to ethylene. The 1-MCP treatment usually did not extend their vase lives in the absence of exogenous ethylene.
Flower abscission from the pedicel is a problem in postharvest handling of Geraldton wax (Chamelaucium uncinatum Schau., Myrtaceae). 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) dips or sprays (1) and silver thiosulfate pulsing (STS) (2) have been recommended to prevent flower abscission in Geraldton wax. NAA (40 μg·liter-1) dips are commonly used in Western Australia. This work was undertaken to determine whether NAA or STS is the more effective treatment for preventing ethylene-induced flower abscission in Geraldton wax.
In vitro propagation of geraldton wax (Chamelaucium uncinatum Schauer) was achieved using nodal explants excised from actively growing shoots of adult plants. Murashige and Skoog basal medium (BM) supplemented with 4.4 μΜ BA was optimum for enhanced axillary shoot growth. Repeated subculturing of in vitro-grown axillary shoots resulted in a propagation rate of 5.7 ± 1.1 (±SE) shoots every 6 weeks. Sixtytwo percent of the shoots obtained by this method rooted on half-strength BM supplemented with 58.4 mM sucrose and 5.0 μΜ NAA. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (BA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Italica) and Geraldton wax flower (Chamelaucium uncinatum cv. Purple Pride), two ethylene-sensitive commodities (1, 2), were used in a postharvest evaluation of a novel plastic film (BO film) claimed to sorb ethylene. BO film (Odja Shoji Co., Ltd.) is low density polyethylene (LDPE) extruded with a finely divided ceramic (crystburite). The BO film was compared with a conventional high density polyethylene film (HDPE). The 15-µm HDPE film had water vapor, O2 and CO2 transmission characteristics of 3.3 g·m−2, 4500 cm3·m−2, and 15,000 cm3·m−2 per 24 hr at 25° C (D. Jesaveluk, personal communication). Permeability values for the 50-µm BO film were not available; however, constituent 50-µm LDPE film has transmission characteristics of 2 g·m−2, 2100 cm3·m−2 and 6700 cm3·m−2 per 24 hr, respectively. Satchels of coarsely ground ceramic (Cerasutora A, ≈38g) were also tested for their ability to preserve postharvest quality.
Abscission of flowers of Geraldton wax (Chamelaucium uncinatum Schau., Myrtaceae) exposed to ethylene was prevented by pulsing with silver thiosulfate. Both a short pulse (15 min, 4.0 mm Ag+) at 25°C and an overnight pulse (0.5 mm Ag+) at 2° were effective treatments. Silver thiosulfate did not improve the vase-life of flowers held in air. Gamma irradiation (60Co source), an insect control measure, resulted in a reduction in vase-life; even at doses as low as 0.05 kGy. Vase-life of Geraldton wax flowers was not affected by prior storage for up to 2 weeks at 0° to 2°. Iprodione pretreatment (1 g·liter−1, 30-sec dip) for Botrytis cinerea Pers. control improved the vase-life of flowers stored for 2 weeks. A preservative solution containing sucrose (1% to 3% w/v) and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (200 mg·liter−1) increased the vase-life of Geraldton wax flowers. Higher sucrose levels (>5% w/v) may cause desiccation of foliage and excessive nectar secretion from floral nectaries. Chemical name used: 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2,4-dioxo-1-imidazolidinecarboxamide (iprodione).
al., 1995a , 1995b ). Others respond to ethylene by abscising petals or florets, including Antirrhinum majus ( Fig. 1 ), Alstroemeria, Penstemon, Rosa hybrida ( Serek et al., 1995a ), and wax flower ( Chamelaucium uncinatum ; Macnish et al., 2000
ethylene-induced flower petal abscission ( Cameron and Reid, 2001 ), and abscission of bud, flower, and leaf in Geraldton waxflower, Chamelaucium uncinatum Schauer ( Serek et al., 1995 ), and improving shelf life of miniature roses ( Muller et al., 2000